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Royal Typewriter Model Photo Galleries

Royal 1, Royal 10, Royal 440, Royal 470, Royal 5, Royal 550, Royal 560, Royal 890, Royal 990, Royal Administrator, Royal All-American, Royal Alpha 110, Royal Alpha 2015, Royal Aristocrat, Royal Arrow, Royal Caravan, Royal Cavalier, Royal Century 2000, Royal Citadel, Royal Companion, Royal Crescent, Royal Custom, Royal Custom III, Royal Dart, Royal De Luxe, Royal Diana, Royal Eldorado, Royal Empress, Royal Ensign, Royal Fiesta, Royal Forward I, Royal FP, Royal Futura 400, Royal Futura 600, Royal Futura 800, Royal H, Royal Heritage, Royal HH, Royal Junior, Royal KH, Royal KHM, Royal KMG, Royal KMM, Royal Medallion II, Royal Mercury, Royal MM, Royal O, Royal P, Royal Parade, Royal Quiet, Royal Quiet De Luxe, Royal RE, Royal Royalite, Royal Royalite 120, Royal Royaluxe, Royal Roytype ME25 Extra, Royal Sabre, Royal Safari, Royal Sahara, Royal Scrittore II, Royal Signet, Royal Signet Junior, Royal Signet Senior, Royal Speed King, Royal Standard, Royal Swinger, Royal Tab-O-Matic, Royal Ultronic, Royal Varsity


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Royal Typewriter Serial Numbers

Also known as Royal (Triumph-Adler)Sears (Royal)Singer

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 11/28/16 10:09
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Royal Typewriter Co. Inc., New York, U.S.A. Company Founded 1904. 18
Platen Diameter Standards & Electrics 1.485" (37.72mm) except Model Superia: 1.751" (44.5mm)
Portables:
Models O,OT,P,RA,AG,A,B,C,CG,RF,F,RC,E,ES,J,JC,BJ,CD,U,D,UR,UB: 1.272" (32.31mm)
Models Royalite & Dart: 1.259" (32mm)
Models Royaluxe 300,325,350,400,425,450, Diana: 1.271" (32.3mm)
24
           
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.

Standard Manual

  Electrics (introduced 1950) serial numbers first run up to 16000, then in late 1951, begin running concurrent with Standard Manuals. Rebuilt Royals carry a "Y" prefix, with "SY" segment shift, "CSY" Chrome segment shift. Example: Y35-107833 is a 1935 rebuilt with Carriage Shift. 18
1 1906 Model No. 1 started. Nos. 2, 3 and 4 were larger carriage versions of No. 1 18
1000 1907   18
4000 1908   18
14000 1909   18
35000 1910 Model No. 5 started, Nos. 6, 7, 8 were larger carriage versions of No. 5 17,18
58000 1911   17
85000 1912   17
142000 1913   17
175000 1914 Model No. 10 started - series run: 173000 to 1663999, Single glass panel began at 212000 17,18,115
205000 1915   17
234000 1916   17
279000 1917 Variable Line Spacer began at 282000 17,18
336000 1918   17
394000 1919   17
478000 1920   17
567000 1921 "QX" Prefix, first serial: 600000 17,18
641000 1922   17
678000 1923   17
760000 1924   17
848000 1925   17
940000 1926   17
1036000 1927   17
1134000 1928   17
1236000 1929   17
1348000 1930       17
1435000 1931     First segment shift at 1466500 17,18
1525000 1932     "S" Model is prior to "H" model 17,18
1554000 1933       17
1617000 1934     "H" and "KH" in 1664000 to 1850000 ("K" means Keyset) 17,18
1723000 1935 "KHM" series ran 1850000 to 2249999. Initals mean: K - Key Set, HM - H Model, DT - Keyset, KDTHM - H Model 5 key Keyset. 17,18,115
1847000 1936   17
2005000 1937   17
2178000 1938 "KHT" fall of 1938, ran series 2250000 to 2273522, "KMM" Magic Margin ran series 2273522 to 3849999. (REMINGTON Examined #2250058 in Oct '38) 17,18,115
2320000 1939   17
2494000 1940   17
2681000 1941   17
2901000 1942   17
3026000 1943     Production Halted: World War II 17
3026000 1944     Production Halted: World War II 17
3037000 1945       17
3094000 1946       17
3273000 1947       17
3550000 1948       17
3865000 1949 Model "KMG" Announced 2/10/49, ran series 3850000 to 4814999, first grey model. 17,18,115
4100000 1950 Royal "RP" Electric introduced Jan 1950. Serial numbers of first Model "RP" Electrics ran in a special series 1000 to 16000 and then were sequenced to match regular Royal Standards in late 1951. 17,18,115
4360000 1951   17
4688000 1952 "HH" Model, standard 43-key keyboard ran series 4815000 to (?). Announced around 8/1/52. (HHP is Pica, HHE is Elite, HHS is 'other') 17,18,115, 116
4990000 1953   17
5248000 1954 Model "RE" Electric runs series 5375000 to (?) 17,115
5500000 1955   17
5787000 1956   17
6037000 1957 Model "FP" begins #6195809. (FPP is Pica, FPE is Elite, FPS is 'other') 17,28
6393000 1958   17
6650000 1959 Model "HE" Electric begins #6859000 17,116
6950000 1960   17
7100000 1961   17
7300000 1962 Model "101" begins #7471771
Model "MC" Empress begins #7325000. (MCP is Pica, MCE is Elite, MCS is 'other')
17,28,116
7500000 1963   17
7775000 1964   20
8060000 1965   20
8290000 1966 Model "440" begins #8390000 20,28
8590000 1967   20
8870000 1968   20
9192000 1969   20
9432000 1970   20
9694000 1971   20
           
Superia Standard       made by Orga A.G., Nuernberg, Germany, owned by Royal  
300000-303999 1950   13
304000-311999 1951   13
312000-313999 1952 Production ended 1953 13
           

Electric

  Royal Electric introduced Jan 1950. Serial numbers of first electrics ran in a special series up to 16000 and then were sequenced to match regular Royal Standards in late 1951.
Royal labeled other manufacturers electric portables as Royals, beginning with the Diana Electric in the 1950s and continuing into the 1970s with Silver Seiko portable electrics from Japan. (see below)
18
           

Portables

     
Royal Portable, Models: P, OT, O (no model name)
A, AG [1950-52], RA[1953-55 "Speed Control"], AB [1955-57 blue], AC [1955-57 charcoal], AR [1955-57 red], AG [1955-57 green], AD [1957 grey/blue], AE [1957 tan], AY [1955-57 yellow], AP [1955-57 pink], AW [1957-58 white] (Quiet DeLuxe)
B [1938-1941], RB [1956-1958], A1(?) [1965-1968] (Speed King, Aristocrat)
C, CG (Arrow)
CD, RF, F (Companion, Commander)
RC (Keystone)
2A (Futura 800)
2C (Futura 400)
SA (Safari)
CR (Caravan)
CU (Custom)
RX (Royaluxe)
SB (Sabre)
1 1926 'P' Model introduced. 17
6000 1927   17
56500 1928   17
114500 1929   17
183800 1930 Shell change to add gull-wing ribbon covers. 17
260000 1931   17
308600 1932 'O' Model introduced. 17
324900 1933   17
354231 1934   17
409082 1935 Shell redesign for 'O' and 'A' Models.
De Luxe 'A' Model introduced starting with serial number 471,000 and featuring nickel-chromium plating and a longer line space lever.
'P' Model becomes Royal Junior.

The Model "A" = touch control, finger comfort keys, automatic paper lock, tabulator, paper guide, complete enclosure as dust protection, types a 9 inch line, comes in 9 or 10 or 12 pitch, all brightwork is chrome plated, and could be bought in black, maroon, or green (glossy paint). Case has chrome-plated dual locks and a weatherproof band around the joint. The "A" sold for $60.
The model "O" is similar but different in important ways = nickel plated bright work, no automatic paper lock, no tabulator, no paper guide, and only sold in shiny black enamel. The case has only one instead of two locks, and the one is nickel plated, not chrome plated. It sold for $49.50.
In addition, The Royal Junior also was offered in 1935. The Junior is basically a reskinned Model P. It was only sold in black enamel and only came with an intermediate Pica type. It sold for a classic Depression price of $33.50.
None of these 1935 portables had a brightwork plated band around the typebar cover, something that adds to the confusion over the differences between the 1935 A and the O.
- Peter Weil, re: 1935 Royal Dealer Catalog

17,7
493068 1936   17
602939 1937   17
724093 1938 Quiet 'A' Model begins, 'B' Model Speed King begins. 'O' and Junior Model discontinued. 17
807493 1939 De Luxe and Quiet 'A' Models become the Quiet De Luxe. 'B' Model Speed King becomes Aristocrat. 'C' Model Arrow Begins. 17
926862 1940 'CD' Model Companion begins. 17
995728 1941 Dec 7, 1941: US enters WWII, 'A', 'B' and 'CD' Models drastically scaled back on March 15th, 1942. 17
1107503 1942 In 1942 Royal produces mainly US Navy Radio Mill Arrow 'C' Models. Approx 56,000 portables made, likely mostly for military use, 1942 to 1943 17
1152000 1943   17,22
production halted 1944 All portable production halts. 17
production halted 1945 Production of civilian-market 'A' and 'C' Model portables re-starts mid/late 1945. 17
1164182 1946   17
1275456 1947   17
1473968 1948 Shell re-designed by Henry Dreyfuss, Squared shell, Grey and Black with oval crome inserts for front levers. Keytops change from round glass to 'tombstone' glass with chromed rims. 17
1741468 1949 Shell color reconfigured in the beginning months of 1949, shell now all-grey. Gold-plated Anniversary 'A' Models produced. 17
1940834 1950 Shell re-designed again near the end of 1950. Ribbon cover hole enlarged, chrome lever inserts now have "wings", Plastic keys begin, except on special-order and some foreign keyboards. 'C' Model Arrow Discontinued, Companion re-designed and re-launched as 'F' Model. 17
2137681 1951   17
2353369 1952 'F' Model Companion halted. 17
2563970 1953 "RA" serial prefix Quiet De Luxe introduces "Speed Control" motor tension control, similar to "Carriage Control" on Standard Model HH. This feature vanishes with the end of the RA prefix QDLs in 1956. 17
2787735 1954   17
2977900 1955 Non-crinkle brightly-colored paint scemes begin. Prefixes: AB [1955-57 blue], AC [1955-57 charcoal], AR [1955-57 red], AG [1955-57 green], AP [1955-57 pink], AY [1955-57 yellow]. 17
3177500 1956 'B' Model Aristocrat redesigned and re-launched. 'RS' Model Companion re-designed and re-launched.
"RA" prefix Quiet De Luxe ends and "Speed Control" is dropped as a feature. "T" prefix teal colored models appear in 1956. Unknown if they have special features other than a new red-background for the ribbon cover logo, a look which is continued until the end of the QDL in 1958.
17
3449287 1957 A new two-tone wrinkle paint scheme is added to the lineup along with a tan wrinkle and towards the end of 1957, the "AW" white that becomes the only model to make the cut in 1958. The "T" prefix of 1956 becomes the "AT" teal of 1957. Prefixes: AD [1957 grey/blue crinkle], AE [1957 tan crinkle], AT [1957 teal], AW [1957-58 white]. 17
3770781 1958 Quiet De Luxe 'A' Model becomes Futura 800 '2A' Model, Arrow 'C' Model becomes Futura 400 '2C' Model, although all are produced concurrently during 1958. 'B' Model Aristocrat halted, 'RS' Model Companion halted.
For the 'A' Model Quiet De Luxe, its final year of production was in a single prefix, introduced late in 1957. Prefix: AW [1958 white].
17
4053056 1959 "Quiet De Luxe" Discontinued. 17
4200000 1960 Approximation. 60
4500000 1961 Approximation. 60
4800000 1962 Approximation. 60
5200000 1963 Approximation. Futura 800 '2A' model becomes Safari 'SA' Model at #5,584,967. Caravan 'CR' Model introduced. 60,28
5584967 1964   6
5958589 1965 Aristocrat re-launched with 'A1(?)' Prefix. Custom 'CU' Model began. Caravan 'CR' Model discontinued(?). 6
6474796 1966   6
6910000 1967 Approximation. 60
7260000 1968 Approximation. Safari 'SA' Model becomes Sabre 'SB' model (made in Portugal). Aristocrat discontinued. U.S. portables production stops(?). Royal/Imperial/Litton begins relabeling of portables made overseas, Beginning with Silver-Seiko in Japan and later, an ABC based portable design manufactured by Messa in Portugal, the same factory producing the SA Sabre. 60
7590000 1969 Approximation.  
7870000 1970 Approximation.  
8110000 1971     Approximation.  
8350000 1972     Approximation.  
8570000 1973     Approximation.
Model "Custom III" introduced.
 
8970000 1974     Approximation.  
9030000 1975     Approximation.
SB9064581 sold Sept., 1975.
 
9070000 1976     Approximation.  
9110000 1977     Approximation.
SB9126804 sold June, 1977.
 
9160000 1978     Approximation.  
9190000 1979     Approximation.
Royal Sabre is offered by distributors, and first mention is made of new "low-end" Safari model coming in 1980 - this is the "Messa" ABC-pattern Safari in plastic shell.
 
9220000 1980     Approximation.
Sabre and Custom III offered by distributors along with new ABC-pattern Safari.
 
9245000 1981     Approximation.
Sabre is dropped from distributor list, and Custom IV introduced. ABC-pattern Safari continues.
 
9265000 1982     Approximation.  
9280000 1983     Approximation.  
9300000 1984     Approximation.
Custom IV dropped from distributor list, leaving only ABC-pattern Safari.
This appears to be the end of the line for the series.
60
-- 1985     ABC-Pattern Safari dropped from distributor list, replaced by "Royal Safari II", a Silver-Reed rebranding.  
           
Royal Portable, Models: E (Signet) - ES (Signet Junior) - J, JC, BJ (Junior) - CD (Companion) - U (Mercury) - D, UR, UB (Varsity)
1000 1932 "E" Model Signet begins. 17
21500 1933   17
24369 1934 "J" Model Junior Begins. 17
33652 1935 Shell redesign model Junior. 17
45013 1936   17
52139 1937   17
66284 1938   17
85734 1939 "U" Model Mercury, "CD" Model Companion and "UB" Model Varsity begin. New shell design. 17
112573 1940   17
162970 1941   17
232332 1942 Production ends on March 15th, 1942, as the US enters WWII. 17
           
Diana Portable and Portable Electric, Royaluxe 300 and 325   made by Orga A.G., Nuernberg, Germany, owned by Royal  
10000-13364 1952   13
13365-22019 1953   6
22020-32143 1954   6
32144-37140 1955   6
37141-43335 1956   6
43336-64700 1957   6
64701-81474 1958   6
81475-104310 1959   6
104311-111500 1959   6
111501-128000 1960 Production ends around serial #128,000 24
           
Royalite, Dart and Royaluxe 400, 425 and 450, Parade, Signet
3000001 1955 Made for Royal by Halberg Machinefabriek N. V., Cuyk, Holland. Based on Halberg Traveller design. 24
3160000 1956   24
3385300 1957   24
3730500 1958   24
3952180 1959   24
4280765 1960   24
4544659 1961   6,24
4927715 1962   6
5292116 1963   6
5743811 1964   6
6098916 1965   6
6580453 1966 Production ends around serial #7,000,000 6
           
Royal (Silver Seiko) Mustang, Apollo, Signet, Sprite, Swinger, Fleetwood, etc.
  1969-1974 Manufactured by Silver Seiko in Japan for Royal and Imperial. See: Royal (Silver Seiko).  
           
Royal (Messa) Safari, etc.
  1980-1984 Manufactured by Messa in Portugal for Royal and Imperial. Based on ABC portable design. See: Royal (Messa).  
           
Royal Epoch
  2013-2015 Manufactured by Shanghai Weilv Mechanism Company in China under Royal branding. Based on IMC Italian design. Sold mainly via catalog outlets. 113
           

Royal Typewriter: Links to Guides




Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler.
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter