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Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers for all Optima typewriter models. Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers for models: Optima Bambina, Optima Double M10, Optima Elite, Optima Elite 145, Optima Elite 2, Optima Elite 3, Optima Elite 46, Optima Humber 77, Optima Humber 88, Optima Humber 99, Optima M10, Optima M12, Optima M14, Optima M16, Optima M18, Optima Model 34, Optima Model 43, Optima P1, Optima Plana, Optima SM40, Optima SP28, Optima Super, Optima T3 2023-09-1 06:22 Look up Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for Optima typewriter models: Optima Bambina, Optima Double M10, Optima Elite, Optima Elite 145, Optima Elite 2, Optima Elite 3, Optima Elite 46, Optima Humber 77, Optima Humber 88, Optima Humber 99, Optima M10, Optima M12, Optima M14, Optima M16, Optima M18, Optima Model 34, Optima Model 43, Optima P1, Optima Plana, Optima SM40, Optima SP28, Optima Super, Optima T3 Find out how old your typewriter is. Look up Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for Optima typewriter models: Optima Bambina, Optima Double M10, Optima Elite, Optima Elite 145, Optima Elite 2, Optima Elite 3, Optima Elite 46, Optima Humber 77, Optima Humber 88, Optima Humber 99, Optima M10, Optima M12, Optima M14, Optima M16, Optima M18, Optima Model 34, Optima Model 43, Optima P1, Optima Plana, Optima SM40, Optima SP28, Optima Super, Optima T3

Optima Typewriter Serial Numbers

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Also known as Ranger (Optima)

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 09/1/23 06:22
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
Platen Diameter       Model Optima Elite, Plana, P1: 1.271" (32.3mm)
Model M10, M12, Opticon: 1.751" (44.5mm)
24
        VEB Optima BĂĽromaschinenwerk, Erfurt, GDR  
           
Standard Manual          
           
M8          
837657-884691 1949     M8 production begins under Optima name in 1949 (formerly Olympia M8) 25
884692-949203 1950       25
949204-966687 1951       25
966688-966867 1952     Last serial number: 966867 25
           
M10          
1046-3692 1950     M10 production begins 1950 25
3693-31215 1951       25
31216-58756 1952       25
58757-84852 1953       25
84853-93236 1954       25
93237-120340 1955       25
120341-139349 1956       25
139350-149723 1957       25
149724-156563 1958       25
156564-163113 1959     Last serial number: 163113 25
           
M12          
200001-210613 1957     M12 production begins 1957 25
210614-222581 1958       25
222582-251552 1959       25
251553-299075 1960       25
299076-352807 1961       25
352808-432807 1962       25
432808-498218 1963       25
498219-534263 1964       25
534264-559975 1965       25
559976-569996 1966       25
569997-578674 1967       25
578675-582560 1968       25
           
M14       Often seen labeled as Erika or Ideal.  
600001-602081 1962       25
602082-627151 1963       25
627152-701140 1964       25
701141-796781 1965       25
796782-894767 1966       25
894768-953779 1967       25
           
M16       Often seen labeled as Erika or Ideal.  
9801-9900 1965       25
9901-9921 1966     0-Series October "sticky" Tabulator (??) 25
<10011-23500 1966     Dec 1966: Normal Tabulator 25
23501-77532 1967       25
77533-188178 1968       25
188179-299815 1969       25
299816-412811 1970       25
412812-517167 1971       25
517168-632022 1972       25
632023-752108 1973       25
752109-888117 1974       25
888118-999999 1975       25
A10000-A34400 1975       25
A34401-A99999 1976       25
B10000-B77852 1976       25
           
M18/20       Often seen labeled as Daro or Robotron.  
O-Series (50 units) 1976       25
B77853-C47385 1977       25
E28760-G66140 1977     1977 - 500 units intermediate series M18/20 gradually increasing. 25
C47386-C57040 1978       25
E28761-E60849 1978       25
G66141-H79900 1978       25
100000-235819 1979       25
235820-371213 1980       25
371214-516064 1981       25
516065-671971 1982       25
671972-834069 1983       25
834070-984257 1984     M22/24 only in the form of 70 units MAM(?) and 150 units 0-Series for user testing. 25
984258-999999 1985     M16/18/20 25
           
M 16/22/24       Often seen labeled as Robotron.  
10000-138931 1985       25
138932-267761 1986       25
267762-377461 1987       25
377462-472741 1988       25
472742-565490 1989       25
565491-652293 1990       25
652294-up 1991       25
           
T3          
1028000 1960       30
110001-1179000 1961       30
           
Electric Typewriters          
M100          
5001-5800 1966       25
5801-15590 1967       25
16000-35009 1968     410 unit difference between end of 1967 and beginning of 1968 in source. Maybe a serial jump? 25
35060-63935 1969     51 unit difference between end of 1968 and beginning of 1969 in the source. Not even gonna guess on that one. /: 25
63939-115802 1970     Great. 4 unit difference between end 1969 and begin 1970 in source. There's a Zen lesson somewhere in all this, I'm certain. 25
115803-197712 1971       25
197713-256174 1972       25
256175-316175 1973       25
           
M200          
10050-20501 1973       25
20502-86894 1974       25
86895-148572 1975     including 0-Series model 202. 25
M202          
1485735-215262 1976       25
215263-286317 1977       25
286318-354318 1978       25
354319-423897 1979       25
423898-495227 1980       25
495228-568130 1981       25
568131-645130 1982       25
645131-716482 1983       25
716483-785132 1984       25
785133-851843 1985       25
851844-915343 1986       25
915344-955949 1987       25
955950-961719 1988       25
           
Portables          
Plana          
198119-203758 1949     Plana production begins under Optima name in 1950 (formerly Olympia Plana) 25
203759-209104 1950     Plana production begins under Optima name in 1950 (formerly Olympia Plana) 25
209105-216313 1951       25
216314-220334 1952       25
220335-230337 1953       25
230338-238019 1954       25
238020-241702 1955       25
241703-244062 1956       25
244063-244972 1957     P1 production begins at number 244973 25
Plana P1          
244973-249472 1957       25
249473-257472 1958       25
257473-263872 1959       25
           
Continental, Opticon          
3001-4272 1956     Continental production begins 1956 25
4273-9497 1957       25
9498-19390 1958     Opticon production begins at number 9498 25
19391-26750 1959     Last serial number: 26750 25
           
Elite, Elite 3, Super          
600956-635415 1949     Elite production begins under Optima name in 1949 (formerly Olympia Elite) 25
635416-681288 1950       25
681289-714799 1951       25
714800-741586 1952       25
741587-754183 1953     Last serial number: 754183 25
           
1001-31349 1953     New Elite serial numbers introduced mid-1953 25
31350-68630 1954       25
68631-75893 1955     Last serial number: 75893 25
875894-882679 1955     Again, new Elite serial numbers introduced mid-1955, however, range in source serials is missing 882680-921280 - dunno what's up with that. 25
921281-961589 1956       25
961590-1005696 1957       25
1005697-1053257 1958       25
1053258-1105861 1959       25
1105862-1153067 1960       25
1153068-1202470 1961     Last serial number: 1202470 - Optima Supers beyond this point are re-labeled Erika 10's, and carry Erika 10 Portable serial numbers. 25
           

Optima Typewriter: Links to History

Optima Typewriter Models: Optima Bambina, Optima Double M10, Optima Elite, Optima Elite 145, Optima Elite 2, Optima Elite 3, Optima Elite 46, Optima Humber 77, Optima Humber 88, Optima Humber 99, Optima M10, Optima M12, Optima M14, Optima M16, Optima M18, Optima Model 34, Optima Model 43, Optima P1, Optima Plana, Optima SM40, Optima SP28, Optima Super, Optima T3


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 * Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger.
see: https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/VOSS.html
https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/voss_52.html
https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/voss_24_typewriter.html
https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/voss_klein_voss.html
https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/voss_privat.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger and later by Otto Koponen
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://etzone.org/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
See: http://www.typewritercollector.com/images/underwoodagelist.pdf
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
See: https://www.perrier-sa.ch/musee/boutique/
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/01/korean-typewriters.html
135 * 1985 IBM Replacement Guide Form 71K6222, supplied by Clark Hinson from the collection of Roger Brockevelt
136 * "Blickensderfer’s last hurrah as a Remington" by Mark Adams.
See: https://type-writer.org/?p=4294
137 * Blickensderfer Research by Peter Weil, 2017
138 * Etcetera #106-107
139 * "Briefly Blick-Bar" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/briefly-blick-bar.html
140 "Lexikon historischer Schreibmaschinen seit 1940" (Typewriter Lexikon since 1940) published 2008 by Leonhard Dingwerth.
141 * "Olivetti macchine per scrivere meccaniche" published 2013 by Carlo Torchio.
From the collection of Carl Hartmann via Mario Bellini
142 * "The ABC in Detail" by Will Davis and Thomas FĂĽrtig.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/search?q=abc+in+detail
143 * "The Real Story of the Brosette Typewriter and its successor the Jaykay Portable" by Michael A. Brown.
See: http://typexnews.com/links/Brosette.pdf
144 * "A Royal Safari at Eighteen Years on the Net" by Will Davis.
See: https://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2018/03/a-royal-safari-at-eighteen-years-on-net.html
145 "The typewriter industry, The impact of a significant technological innovation" 1970 doctoral dissertation by George Nichols Engler, UCLA.
See: https://archive.org/details/TheTypewriterIndustry
146 * Research by Ian Brumfield
147 * Typewriter pages from Sears Catalogs: 1900-1985 From the collections of Alan Seaver (mostly), Nick Bodemer and T. Munk.
148 * "Ten Most Wanted Typewriters" by Richard Polt.
See: https://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-10mw.html
149 * Messa Research by Carl Hartmann.
150 * "The Dawn of the Lettera 22" by John Cooper.
See: https://atypeofmadness.com/2019/02/12/the-dawn-of-the-lettera-22
151 * "Litton Drags its Caravan Through the Typewriter Desert" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2019/03/litton-drags-its-caravan-through.html
152 * "Typewriter review: 2019 Royal Classic" by Richard Polt.
See: https://writingball.blogspot.com/2019/03/typewriter-review-2019-royal-classic.html
153 * "GENERATION 3000" by Will Davis.
See: http://www.willdavis.org/Generation3000.html
154 * "Everything New in Portable Typewriters is Old Again" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/12/everything-new-in-portable-typewriters.html
155 * "Pretentious Self-Indulgence, and Also Some Pretty Big Breakthroughs" by Ian Brumfield.
See: http://dailyclipper.retroid.xyz/2019/07/16/pretentious-self-indulgence-and-also-some-pretty-big-breakthroughs
156 "1965-1969 Royal Line Catalog" from the collection of Ian Brumfield.
157 * "Harris Visible, Rex Visible, Demountable; Name variants; Vim Visible" by Will Davis.
See: https://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/01/harris-visible-rex-visible-demountable.html
158 * "1973 NOMDA Blue Book" by National Office Machine Dealers Association.
159 * "Olympia Engineering Bulletin General-3" by ITC, Jan 1, 1969.
160 * "IDENTIFYING AND DATING ANTIQUE CALIGRAPH WRITING MACHINES Nos. 1-4" by Al Sumrall.
See: https://oldhoodooblog.wordpress.com/2020/03/20/identifying-and-dating-antique-caligraph-writing-machines-typewriters-nos-1-4/
161 * "Some Type Writers - Their Origin and Uses" By J. B. Huling in Scientific American #575 - January 8, 1887.
162 * "Typewriter, A Celebration of the Ultimate Writing Machine" by Paul Robert and Peter Weil, 2016.
163 * "The Caligraph Publications" by Paul Robert.
164 * "Magic, Maligners and Malfunctions. Part IV – the Waverley, Maskelyne, Rapid, Salter and Many More." by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2020/07/magic-maligners-and-malfunctions-part.html
165 * "Burroughs Adding Machine Company - Typewriters"
See: http://www.burroughsinfo.com/typewriters.html
166 * "Hall Typewriter Serial Numbers" by Al Sumrall
167 * LC Smith and Corona Service Bulletins (1939-1954) From the collection of T. Munk
168 * "Research on Halberg" by Theo Verkerk
See: https://www.facebook.com/groups/TypewriterCollectors/permalink/10157289533199678/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/TypewriterCollectors/permalink/10157248994634678/
https://www.facebook.com/groups/TypewriterCollectors/permalink/10157259808104678/
169 * Royal Royalite Parts Manuals 1955-1965 From the collection of T. Munk
170 * "FRISTER & ROSSMANN TYPEWRITERS"
See: https://www.fiddlebase.com/frister-rossmann/f-r-typewriters/
171 * Dial-a-Ribbon & Typing by Numbers
See: https://etzone.org/2022/05/05/dial-a-ribbon-typing-by-numbers
172 * etzone - a summary of Sharp's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/sharp-2/
173 * etzone - a summary of Canon's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/canon/
174 * etzone - a summary of Nakajima All's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/nakajima-all/
175 * "Nakajima Model 800 Typewriter: The most surprising machine of ALL" by Robert Messenger
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/07/nakajima-model-800-typewriter-most.html