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Noiseless Typewriter Serial Numbers

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/23/16 12:40
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

  1896-1903
Patents:
US630060
Filed Nov 17, 1896 • Issued Aug 1, 1899
US981657
Filed Jun 3, 1910 • Issued Jan 17, 1911
US1013084
Filed Aug 13, 1907 • Issued Aug 13, 1907
US1046205
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Dec 3, 1912
US1046229
Filed Aug 18, 1905 • Issued Dec 3, 1912
US1049767
Filed Apr 19, 1909 • Issued Jan 7, 1913
US1049768
Filed Apr 19, 1909 • Issued Jan 7, 1913
US1053065
Filed Apr 27, 1908 • Issued Feb 11, 1913
US1055566
Filed Jun 19, 1912 • Issued Mar 11, 1913
US1077941
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Nov 4, 1913
US1082556
Filed Apr 19, 1909 • Issued Dec 30, 1913
US1082535
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Dec 30, 1913
US1082536
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Dec 30, 1913
US1082537
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Dec 30, 1913
US1082538
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Dec 30, 1913
US1084385
Filed Jun 5, 1913 • Issued Jan 13, 1914
US1084347
Filed Jun 5, 1913 • Issued Jan 13, 1914
US1094816
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Apr 28, 1914
US1103158
Filed Jun 24, 1907 • Issued Jul 14, 1914
US1104359
Filed Dec 13, 1913 • Issued Jul 21, 1914
US1108485
Filed Feb 21, 1910 • Issued Aug 25, 1914
US1116490
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Nov 10, 1914
US1120660
Filed Apr 13, 1910 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1120676
Filed Mar 22, 1910 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1120726
Filed Jun 21, 1910 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1120747
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1120976
Filed May 14, 1914 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1121018
Filed Apr 25, 1906 • Issued Dec 15, 1914
US1122764
Filed Apr 22, 1909 • Issued Dec 29, 1914
US1122775
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Dec 29, 1914
US1123463
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Jun 5, 1908
US1123561
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Jan 5, 1915
US1123771
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Jan 5, 1915
US1127048
Filed Sep 27, 1910 • Issued Feb 2, 1915
US1130130
Filed May 3, 1910 • Issued Mar 2, 1915
US1141168
Filed Oct 11, 1910 • Issued Jun 1, 1915
US1146578
Filed Apr 22, 1909 • Issued Jul 13, 1915
US1149659
Filed Jun 3, 1908 • Issued Aug 10, 1915
US1155635
Filed Apr 27, 1908 • Issued Oct 5, 1915
US1155634
Filed Apr 27, 1908 • Issued Oct 5, 1915
US1155636
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Oct 5, 1915
US1158941
Filed Apr 27, 1908 • Issued Nov 2, 1915
US1160560
Filed Mar 5, 1910 • Issued Nov 16, 1915
US1161181
Filed Mar 17, 1910 • Issued Nov 23, 1915
US1162192
Filed Jun 5, 1908 • Issued Nov 30, 1915
US1162434
Filed Apr 22, 1910 • Issued Nov 30, 1915
US1163971
Filed Jul 30, 1910 • Issued Dec 14, 1915
US1163955
Filed May 9, 1908 • Issued Dec 14, 1915
US1163966
Filed May 14, 1910 • Issued Dec 14, 1915
US1164623
Filed Apr 9, 1910 • Issued Dec 21, 1915
US1164622
Filed Jun 3, 1908 • Issued Dec 21, 1915
US1164942
Filed Apr 22, 1909 • Issued Dec 21, 1915
US1164945
Filed Apr 16, 1909 • Issued Dec 21, 1915
Portable:
US1063289
Filed Jul 20, 1908 • Issued Jun 3, 1913
The Noiseless typewriter was invented by Wellington Parker Kidder of Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts, who had already achieved success with the Franklin and Wellington. Kidder began collaborating with Charles Carrol Colby, a Stanstead, Quebec Canadian investor and promoter, in 1896 to develop a noiseless typewriter using the "pressure print theory". Colby previously had promoted the Wellington overseas and established successful manufacture of that design with Empire in the U.K., and Adler in Germany.
Between 1896-1903 Kidder and Colby worked mainly on other commercial ideas like pneumatic saws, bark-scrapers and even a brief flirtation with automobiles, forming the Kidder Motor Vehicle Company, building steam motors in New Haven, CT. before failing in 1903.
After 1903, Kidder returns to the noiseless typewriter idea, but Colby is in poor health and suggests Kidder find a new partner. Kidder then partners with Buffalo, NY buisnessman George Matthews and W. C. Ely, who fund the creation of Parker Machine Company.
After the sale of Noiseless to Remington in 1924, Kidder attempts one last design before his death; the tiny Rochester.

Platen Diameter: unknown, Composition: Steel, without rubber covering.
Serial Number Location Standard: On a plate, right side, top under right end of carriage. Portable: on outside of rear frame, at bottom, center.
Ribbon/Inking Standard: bichrome 1/2" ribbon. Portable: single-color 7/16" ribbon.

5,6,27, 31,59,61, 65,109
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
  1904     A model of the Noiseless design is taken to the Parker Machine Company in Buffalo, NY to be made ready for production.
$500,000 was spent between 1904-1909 developing the machine, with experimental work carried on in Woonsocket, R.I. and Hartford, Conneticut.
61,65
  1905      
  1906      
  1907     Jan 1907: C. C. Colby passes away, and his son Dr. C. W. Colby becomes more involved in financing the company and directing its efforts, sending Kidder's son Billy Kidder to demonstrate the new machine to investors in Montreal, raising $50,000 in stock subscriptions. 109
  1908     Parker Machine Co. becomes Silent Writing Machine Company of New York by recapitalization ($750,000) and exchange of securities.
Autumn, 1908: Silent Writing Machine Co. enters negotiation for purchasing the former Eisenhut Horseless Carriage Co. factory in Middletown, Conn. Contract is completed Dec. 31, 1908 and organizes Noiseless Typewriter Company of Conneticut to manufacture and sell the Noiseless design in the Western Hemisphere. President: W. Caryl Ely.
Dr. C. W. Colby becomes a director of the firm.
18,65,109
Model 1
"Cam Action"
1909 A factory is established in Middletown, Conneticut. Noiseless Typewriter Company is incorporated.
Design refinement continues, but now major tooling is begun for the Model 1 Noiseless under the direction of Edward Clark.
Model 1 runs serial numbers 1 to 2000.
Model 1 uses a flat metal bar as a platen and has a rubberized feed roller that is often mistaken as the platen, solid disc-shaped ribbon covers, 28 key 3-bank keyboard with CAP and FIG keys on left side of keyboard, backspacer and margin keys on right, no tabulator key, high paper table with "Noiseless" decal, short carriage return lever and a nickle-plated rim on the top cover at the head of the typebar assembly, where a triangular print-point indicator appears on later models. The patent dates end with April 7, 1908 and have an incorrect Feb 1, 1908 patent date.
59,61,109
1-2000 1910     The 1924 ADBM suggests that Model 1 ran to #5000 and Model 3 began at #5001 and ended at #12300.
Dec 1910: Articles featuring the Noiseless are published in Scientific American and Cassier's Engineering Monthly. The Model 1 first appears in a limited market.
18,41,59, 109
  1911     Production of the Model 1 is halted and withdrawn, as it is discovered that typists do not like the "cam action" feel of the machine. 109
  1912      
  1913     Feb 14, 1913: New action called the "momentum accumulator" designed by Nils H. Anderson.
October 1913: Noiseless is in financial distress due to "Cam Action" fiasco.
December 1913: The Noiseless Typewriter Co. reorganizes, Joseph Merriam becomes president, but soon cedes to C. W. Colby. Redesign engineering by Nils Anderson and William Lorenz, and newly-recruited engineers George Gould Going and James Ruin.
W. P. Kidder and Edward Clark parts ways with the company.
109
  1914     Feb 1914: E. J. Sheehan appointed General Sales Manager.
June 1914 to March 1915: factory tooling construction for Noiseless Model 3 design under direction of factory manager J. A. Ruffin.
Batches of early "momentum accumulator" designs are manufactured and tested.
65,86,101, 109
Model 3
10026-11000
1915 Model 3 begins March 15, 1915 at serial #3/10026 - 6,574 Manufactured.
Sales offices at Postal Telegraph Building, 253 Broadway, New York City are opened, but supply is such that only local distribution is pursued.
By the end of 1915, the design is finalized and sales price set at $135.
Similar platen bar configuration as Model 1, simplified paper finger with no connector. New longer return lever on left, triangular print point indicator. High paper table with decal but no nickle trim. Semicircular topped margin stops and 28 key 3-bank keyboard with Cap and Fig and lock on left and backspace, tab, Cap and margin release keys on right. Tombstone shaped pressure indicator partly obscures main decal. Back patent dates with Feb 11, 1908 correction and last date of Dec 26, 1911.
18,59,61, 86,109
11001-13000 1916     Noiseless Typewriter Co. begins General sales distribution and recruits foreign agencies.
18,59,61, 101
Model 4
13001-17000
1917 Model 4 begins in Oct 1917 at serial #4/16600 - 52,696 Manufactured.
Three bank keyboard with 28 keys and 84 characters. Double toggle action. Single-color ribbon. Cap, Fig and lock keys on left, backspace, tab, Cap, Fig and margin release keys on right. Steel platen roll begins, low paper table and high, nickled paper rest.
Noiseless establishes agencies in France, Italy, Holland, Spain and Egypt.
18,41,59, 61,65,109
17001-24000 1918     18,41,59, 61,84
24001-35000 1919     The Noiseless Typewriter Co. grants employees a 10% wage increase and reduces working hours from 54hrs/week to 50hrs/week.
George Gould Going, formerly factory superintendent, is promoted to Works Engineer in the Experimental Department to perfect his noiseless portable design. Arthur Jenner becomes superintendent.
Dec 1919: Noiseless declares first dividend of 2% on common stock, paid to stockholders on January 2, 1920.
18,41,59, 61,85
35001-51000 1920     Noiseless scores public relations coup when it becomes the only typewriter allowed on the floor of the 1920 Democratic and Republican Conventions. 13,18,41, 59,61,109
51001-60000 1921     Nov 1921: Noiseless Portable released (see below)
Whispers from the Noiseless Typewriter Company, in-house newsletter begins.
13,18,41, 61,65,109
60001-68000 1922     Jan 3, 1922: Noiseless convenes 3-day Branch Manager's conference
Aug 1922: Noiseless begins "Factory Rebuilt" program, rebuilding machines in the Middletown factory under the direction of Garrett S. O'Dell.
18,41,59, 82
Model 5
68001-77400
1923 Model 5 begins March 1923 at serial #5/69296
Three-row 30 key keyboard with 90 characters, bichrome ribbon, backspace, tabulator and key tension adjustment. Carriage mounted on ball-bearings, takes paper 10.5" wide with a writing line 9.5" long. Full drop speed escapement, 1/2/3 linespacing. Left and right margin stops. variable line spacer. Right and left-hand carriage release levers. Steel platen roll. Cap, Fig and lock keys on left, backspace, tab, Cap, Fig and margin release keys on right. Ribbon bichrome selector on right front, with "upper" and "lower" settings decaled. Smaller front "Noiseless" decal.

Carriage lengths and prices:
$135.00 - 10" carriage, paper 10.5: wide, writes 9.5" line.
$140.00 - 12" carriage, paper 12.5: wide, writes 11.5" line.
$145.00 - 14" carriage, paper 14.5: wide, writes 13.5" line.
$147.50 - 16" carriage, paper 16.5: wide, writes 15.5" line.
$150.00 - 18" carriage, paper 18.5: wide, writes 17.5" line.
$160.00 - 20" carriage, paper 20.5: wide, writes 19.5" line.
$185.00 - 26" carriage, paper 26.5: wide, writes 25.5" line.

18,59,61, 109
77401-up 1924     March 1924: Remington Typewriter Co. Purchases Noiseless Typewriter Co.
Noiseless Standard production was sold to Remington and remaining inventory becomes Remington Noiseless No. 5.
Discontinued Model 5 in Dec 1924.
Noiseless Typewriter Co. General Sales office remains open through 1924 at 253 Broadway, New York City.
13,18,59, 101
Portable
1-200
1921 Developed by George Gould Going in 1908 and introduced in November 1921 at a price of $65.
Three row 28 key keyboard writing 84 characters. Right and left-hand shift keys with shift lock and release, backspace and margin release keys. Carriage mounted on ball bearings, takes paper 9.5" wide, writing a 7.25" line. Steel platen. Full drop speed escapement, left hand line space lever with 1 or 2 space line advance and ratchet release. Backspacer, right and left margin stops and end-of-line lock. Magin release key.
Weight: 6.5lbs without case, 8lbs with case. Case dimensions: 11.25" long, 9.5" wide and 4.75" tall.
Available typefaces: Pica, Elite, Medium Roman or Gothic.
59,61,65
201-2600 1922     Approximation
 
2601-5000 1923     Approximation
 
5001-6500 1924     Approximation
Portable model discontinued on Remington takeover. Remaining units sold through Remington sales channels. Some remaining 3-bank Noiseless Portables may have been labelled "Remington", similar to the remaining Noiseless Model 5's.
In 1931 Remington releases a redesigned 4-bank Noiseless Portable and also licenses the design to Underwood.
 

Noiseless Typewriter: Links to History



Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.6 Jan 26, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima