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VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers for all VariTyper typewriter models. VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers for models: VariTyper 1010, VariTyper 230F, VariTyper 610, VariTyper 630, VariTyper Composing Machine, VariTyper DSJ, Third Electric Model, VariTyper Engineering, VariTyper Folding, VariTyper Incorporated, VariTyper Unknown 2022-08-15 03:41 Look up VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for VariTyper typewriter models: VariTyper 1010, VariTyper 230F, VariTyper 610, VariTyper 630, VariTyper Composing Machine, VariTyper DSJ, Third Electric Model, VariTyper Engineering, VariTyper Folding, VariTyper Incorporated, VariTyper Unknown Find out how old your typewriter is. Look up VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for VariTyper typewriter models: VariTyper 1010, VariTyper 230F, VariTyper 610, VariTyper 630, VariTyper Composing Machine, VariTyper DSJ, Third Electric Model, VariTyper Engineering, VariTyper Folding, VariTyper Incorporated, VariTyper Unknown

VariTyper Typewriter Serial Numbers

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Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/15/22 03:41
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Mar 3, 1911 • Granted: Oct 15, 1912
Inventor: James Bartlett Hammond
Hammond Typewriter Co., 69. Street and East River,New York, U.S.A.
Since 1931: Vari-Typer Inc., 132. Street, New York, U.S.A.
Later: Ralph C. Coxhead Corp., 333. Avenue of the Americas, New York, U.S.A.
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
  1880     This date is not a production date and should not be used, although it had been common for collectors and historians to use it until around the year 2000.
It is the right year for the first small Hammond factory, but it was basically a laboratory to solve the design problems of the Hammond until production began four years later.
In addition to the problems with the material the type wheel face was made of, there were problems about the quality of the printing. This second problem apparently was a major one that slowed the date of the production of the Hammond 1 Ideal until 1884.

Hammond No. 1 Ideal

Serial Number Location: Under right ribbon spool. 31
  1884 Production likely began in mid to late 1884.
Factory = Foot of East 52nd Street
Sales Office = 75 and 77 Nassau st., New York
Curved keyboard, entire wooden housing, two piece type-shuttle, central "turret" covered with olive celluloid sheet.
There are no known advertisements for the Hammond before 1885, and those are late in the year.
  1885     Ideal #1 Serial 85 39
  1886     Sales Office = 143 Centre St., New York 130
  1887     Ideal #1 Serial 3149, 3500. 39,130
  1887     Ad states over 4000 in use.
Sales Office = 75 and 77 Nassau St., New York
  1888     Ideal #1 Serial 5621, 5902, 7491, 9081.
Sales Office = 75 and 77 Nassau St.; 77 Nassau St.; then 78 Nassau St., and also 292-298 Ave. B, New York
  1889     Ideal #1 Serial 7563. 39
  1890     Ad states 11,000 now in use.
General Offices and Factory = 69th to 70th Streets [some give the address of the second factory as 639 East 69th St.], New York
Sales Offices = 77 Nassau and then at 447 and 449 East 52nd St., New York

Hammond No. 1 Exchange Model

  1891 In April, 1891, Hammond announces that it will sell a special version of the #1 Ideal with a wooden covered housing (a bit different shape than original covered housing) for $50. These were called "The Hammond EXCHANGE" model. In a trade catalog for the # 2 models, it specifies advertises this as "The Exchange Model of 1892." The Exchange model Ideal Hammonds were given their OWN serial number sequence. The serial numbers are quite low, and thus should not be confused with the regular Hammond sequence and are much later than the original ones. This is the only situation when Hammond made machines with base serial numbers outside the sequence for the regular Hammond #1's and all other Hammond models. Exchange model Ideal #1's were offered as late as 1896. 130
  1892     First major modification of the #1 Ideal is introduced. The wooden housing is eliminated but the split shuttle and ebony keyboard remain the same. Earliest ad for this is February, 1892.
Then, by no later than December, 1892 (based on a dated advertisement) another modification was made. The split typewheel is replaced with a single-piece type sector that was attached to a vertical cylinder. This attached type sector was named an "anvil" and the hammer was modified to go with it. The new form was called the "Anvil and Shuttle" design. It was applied to BOTH the Ideal and the Universal keyboard #1 Hammond models.
Thus, the Hammond split typewheel is no longer a feature of new Hammonds from December, 1892 on. It is replaced by the "shuttle." Typeface catalogs now describe the availability of the typewheels and the shuttles separately.
Also, in 1892, a "manifolding attachment" is introduced for both the Ideal and the Universal. The "attachment" appears to simply be interchangeable rubber hammer tips varied hardness.

Hammond No. 1 Universal

    The Hammond #1 Universal was introduced in 1890 (the earliest ads are July, 1890), and have serial numbers running in the same sequence as other Hammond models.
The three-bank machine has nickel-plated ringed keys. The number of keys is 30, the same number as on the Ideal. The key tops (called "finger pieces" by Hammond) themselves were advertised as interchangeable for different languages. This and the overt recognition by Hammond that many typist have been trained on "universal" machines made by other companies, is the only advantage of the new Universal design overtly recognized by Hammond in its advertising.
By December, 1893, the Universal is advertised as having the "type-bar touch," It has the same "tower" mechanism as the Ideal of this period and includes the split typewheel. From this point on, Hammond typeface catalogs have to distinguish Ideal and Universal typewheels.
The introduction takes place at the same time that Hammond opens its new, larger factory.
  1890     #1 Universal serial 14421 39
  1897     #1 Serial 4621 (suspected Remodel serial number) 39

Hammond No. 1 'A'

  1891 The Model "1A" [a collector’s designation, not a factory one] was introduced in 1891. The 1A is an Ideal Keyboard machine with the original ebony keys on a two-row keyboard that is "open," with the frame attached to a flat baseboard. Originally, it had the split type wheel, but by 1893-94 it had the one-piece shuttle [collectors designate this as the "1B."]. The range for 1 A's in the Typewriter Times [November, 1986] list is from ser. # 4502-# 24626. Note that Universal keyboard Hammond # 1's were introduced in 1890 and have serial #'s running in the same sequence as other Hammond models. 130
  1898     #1A Serials 16285, 22226, 23633 39

Hammond No. 1 'B'

  1893-94 Ebony keys, curved keyboard, no more wooden housing, two piece type-shuttle, central "turret" covered with olive celluloid sheet 5,130

No. 2 Ideal and Universal

  1895 Sales Office = 139 Broadway, New York
The introduction of the Hammond #2 Ideal and Universal models was launched in 1895, but most of the early ads are from 1896. The following were new to these models:
  1. greater visibility for the typed line was created through a mechanism that included a horizontal metal tab attached to the front of the upper portion of the tower that, when pushed down, exposed the current line being typed;
  2. the introduction of interchangeable celluloid, small rectangular key tops to the Ideal—for the Universal, now add-on, snap-on key top sets could be used for different language sectors, but the standard key tops were not interchangeable themselves;
  3. the vertical rods in the tower that activate the turning of the type sector were now in a single arched row, rather that the two-row arrangement that was on all #1 models
  4. the black-painted metal paper tube that was installed in the carriage that had been solid or, in some cases, perforated with widely-spaced drilled holes on the #1 models , was now replaced with a metal mesh tube that was first a fairly coarse screen-like material and then was replaced with a fine-mesh screen-material. In both cases, the tube was nickel-plated.
  5. a celluloid plate was installed above the keyboard, usually with the Hammond name on it; this was angled towards the user and had clips to hold printed cardboard celluloid-laminated keyboard guide for different languages than on the standard keyboard.
  6. the ribbon spool and all ribbon handling parts are redesigned to use a 13/32-inch ribbon, instead or the narrower 5/16-inch one on the #1 models.
  1895     #2 Serial 26457 [Universal] 39
  1896     About 1896, Hammond introduced five additional models based on the #2 technology. All but the #5 were offered with either Ideal or Universal keyboards. These models were:
  • #3 with a 11.5 inch carriage
  • #4 with standard carriage and 9 characters per inch
  • #5 with 4-row Greek sector and three shift keys
  • #6 with 16 inch carriage
  • #7 with 20 inch carriage
  • #8 with 30 inch carriage
In addition, some special models adapted for specific work were introduced in 1896. For example, a "Card Cataloger" was introduced for library work. The ads for it show an Ideal, but it is likely that it was offered with the Universal keyboard.
  1898     #2 Serial 34259, 34265, 34266 [all Ideal], 35841 [Universal] 39
  1898     #1 Remodeled to #2 Ideal, Serial 3053R, 8983R 39
  1902-1903     Sales Office = 165 Broadway, New York
About 1902-1903, Hammond begins to ship all Hammond models with a simplified paper rack. The rack on previous models had been constructed of two cast support arms and a rod, all of which had been nickel plated. Now the rack was made of a single bent rod that was nickel plated.
This is often called the "coat hanger" paper rack. This was much easier and cheaper to make, and was also used on the #12. Introduced in 1904.
Of course, some early #2 machines have these later racks because the three-piece rack often broke, and, once available, it could be replaced with the new form.
  1905     Sales Office = 223 Broadway, New York 130
  1906     Sales Office = 212 Broadway, New York 130
  1908     #2 Serial 61277 39

No. 12 Ideal and Universal

Serial Number Location: On left back end of machine over left rear rubber foot. 31
  1904 In 1904, at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition in St. Louis, Hammond introduced the model 12 with either an Ideal or Universal Keyboard. Some of the new model machines were sold in 1904, but most of the earliest ephemera are from 1905.
The major new characteristics of #12 Hammonds is he introduction of a modification in visible access to the line being typed by eliminating the tab system on the # 2-based models and introducing a kind of "ribbon vibrator" that moved the ribbon down after a letter was struck. The visible aspect of this change is a horizontal metal wire sitting on top of the tower with a ribbon carrier at the carriage side and attached at the front of the tower with a small metal bale that allowed the wire hoop to move up and down. There is an angled up pinch in the loop at the front that can be pushed down for ribbon adjustment of to insert a small cut piece of red carbon paper to change the color of the printing. This was marketed as the "Polychrome Ribbon Attachment."
In addition, the hammer now had a head with four different rubber faces on it that could be switched depending on the elasticity/hardness needed. The heads were part of a roratatable rubber ring. There were modifications that included a feed ratchet and release to make it easier to adjust and a change in the way the hammer spring worked. Other characteristics of the #2 basic design were retained in the #12 with both keyboards. Aesthetically, the color of the celluloid key card guide was made in black or in white.
  1906-1908     The Universal 12 was offered with a mathematical keyboard and a four-row typesector. 130
  1907     Universal #12 Serial 103615 39
  1912     The "Reversible" Hammond #12 Universal model was introduced. While the main purpose was to make it possible to type in Arabic and Hebrew, the machine could write all of the other 300 type styles available by then. 130

Multiplex Ideal and Universal

  1913 The primary change that defined the new Multiplex models introduced in 1913 was the capacity to carry two different type sectors on the tower anvil. To change typefaces, all the user needed to do was to lift and rotate the anvil and drop it into the typing position.
The first models through mid 1915 were "open" versions; they still used the ribbon spools as on the previous model and the key levers and tower were exposed.
In addition, the Multiplex introduced a back space key. The key tops of the Universal were changed to metal-ringed glass-topped ones.
  1915 The most obvious change in both models was the enclosing of the tower and key levers and the introduction of ribbon cups and regular metal spools. In addition, by no later than this, a capacity for a two-color ribbon was introduced.
The first Hammond portable was introduced. It was made of aluminum and was in a leatherette-covered wooden case. It had all the usual covered Multiplex characteristics, but it was somewhat smaller and lighter. It was offered, like the regular Multiplex Universal, as a Mathematical model.
For the first time, Hammond offered the Universal with variable pitch settings—from 4 to 18 letters to the inch. This change, in combination with the interchangeable type faces, will become the basis of the Varityper models from 1927 on.
In 1915, the new covered Multiplex Universal was first offered in a "Mathematical Model" that was "improved." The improvement over the #12 mathematical Universal is not clear.
Note that the Reversible Hammond 12 Universal continued to be made and sold until at least 1915. It was replaced by a "closed" Multiplex version that year.
  1917     Multiplex Serial 110154 [Ideal], 163881 [Universal] 39

Multiplex Portable

  1915 Introduced 1915, Aluminum frame, Non-folding keyboard. 130
  1919     Portable Multiplex Serial AL202867 39

Model 26 Multiplex Folding

  1921 The Hammond Universal Multiplex Folding Portable was introduced. Note that the common incorrect date given is 1923, but the 1921 date given is based on a postmarked advertising flier for the folding portable that was sent on September 27, 1921.
The main innovation was a keyboard that folded up to make the machine far more compact that the original portable of 1915. It was also made of aluminum and was offered in special models, particularly the Scientific and Mathematical one with three shift keys and two four-row type sectors of different pitch sizes.
It also could be purchased with a switch to vary the pitch size for the escapement.
Basically the same machine as the Model 26 Portable. In addition, this design was the basis of the first Varityper in 1927.
  1923     Sales Office = 553A East 69th St., New York 130


  1927     The variable pitch version of the Hammond Multiplex Folding Portable is re-labeled as "VARITYPER." The decal appears in the same position on the tower cover as "FOLDING" had in the previous year.
These are manual, non-electric machines from serial #300,000 ending with the electric models starting in 1930 at serial #400,000.
  1928     Earliest documented offering of an aluminum-framed mechanical desk-top office VARITYPER with variable pitch switch.
Offered by Vari-typer Incorporated of New York, NY.
Based on a trade catalog and the several testimonial letters it includes from June, 1928 to April, 1929. The catalog is copyrighted 1929.
  1929 Since 1929: Vari-Typer Inc., 132 Street, New York, U.S.A.
The 1929 Vari-Typer is a manual, non-electric office model; the lower body including the space bar guard, are often unpainted (the whole body is aluminum).
  1929-1930 First Electric Varityper introduced in ca. 1930 by Coxhead of NYC
Ralph C. Coxhead, 17 Park Place, New York
Ralph C. Coxhead Corp., 333 Avenue of the Americas, New York
Ralph C. Coxhead Corp., Newark, New Jersey
  1933 Second version of Electric Vari-Typer introduced ca. 1933 by Coxhead in NYC; these used a carbon ribbon and were the key to sales to advertising agencies and small newspapers 130
  1950s     Name changed to simply Coxhead = Vari-Typer Corp., Newark, New Jersey - both names were used. 130
  1953 Third version of Electric Vari-Typer introduced ca. 1953 by Coxhead in NYC. Model "DSJ". 130
  1953 Vari-Typer Stencil-Writer introduced ca. 1953 by Coxhead in NYC. 130
  1956 Fourth version of Electric Vari-Typer introduced ca. 1956 by Coxhead in NYC. Model "DSJF". 130
  1963 Model 660 Vari-Typer. 5 other models available. 130
  1970     production ended 5

VariTyper Typewriter Models: VariTyper 1010, VariTyper 230F, VariTyper 610, VariTyper 630, VariTyper Composing Machine, VariTyper DSJ, Third Electric Model, VariTyper Engineering, VariTyper Folding, VariTyper Incorporated, VariTyper Unknown

Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 * Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger.
see: https://www.sommeregger.name/typewriters/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger and later by Otto Koponen
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://etzone.org/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
See: http://www.typewritercollector.com/images/underwoodagelist.pdf
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
See: https://www.perrier-sa.ch/musee/boutique/
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/01/korean-typewriters.html
135 * 1985 IBM Replacement Guide Form 71K6222, supplied by Clark Hinson from the collection of Roger Brockevelt
136 * "Blickensderfer’s last hurrah as a Remington" by Mark Adams.
See: https://type-writer.org/?p=4294
137 * Blickensderfer Research by Peter Weil, 2017
138 * Etcetera #106-107
139 * "Briefly Blick-Bar" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/briefly-blick-bar.html
140 "Lexikon historischer Schreibmaschinen seit 1940" (Typewriter Lexikon since 1940) published 2008 by Leonhard Dingwerth.
141 * "Olivetti macchine per scrivere meccaniche" published 2013 by Carlo Torchio.
From the collection of Carl Hartmann via Mario Bellini
142 * "The ABC in Detail" by Will Davis and Thomas FĂĽrtig.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/search?q=abc+in+detail
143 * "The Real Story of the Brosette Typewriter and its successor the Jaykay Portable" by Michael A. Brown.
See: http://typexnews.com/links/Brosette.pdf
144 * "A Royal Safari at Eighteen Years on the Net" by Will Davis.
See: https://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2018/03/a-royal-safari-at-eighteen-years-on-net.html
145 "The typewriter industry, The impact of a significant technological innovation" 1970 doctoral dissertation by George Nichols Engler, UCLA.
See: https://archive.org/details/TheTypewriterIndustry
146 * Research by Ian Brumfield
147 * Typewriter pages from Sears Catalogs: 1900-1985 From the collections of Alan Seaver (mostly), Nick Bodemer and T. Munk.
148 * "Ten Most Wanted Typewriters" by Richard Polt.
See: https://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-10mw.html
149 * Messa Research by Carl Hartmann.
150 * "The Dawn of the Lettera 22" by John Cooper.
See: https://atypeofmadness.com/2019/02/12/the-dawn-of-the-lettera-22
151 * "Litton Drags its Caravan Through the Typewriter Desert" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2019/03/litton-drags-its-caravan-through.html
152 * "Typewriter review: 2019 Royal Classic" by Richard Polt.
See: https://writingball.blogspot.com/2019/03/typewriter-review-2019-royal-classic.html
153 * "GENERATION 3000" by Will Davis.
See: http://www.willdavis.org/Generation3000.html
154 * "Everything New in Portable Typewriters is Old Again" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/12/everything-new-in-portable-typewriters.html
155 * "Pretentious Self-Indulgence, and Also Some Pretty Big Breakthroughs" by Ian Brumfield.
See: http://dailyclipper.retroid.xyz/2019/07/16/pretentious-self-indulgence-and-also-some-pretty-big-breakthroughs
156 "1965-1969 Royal Line Catalog" from the collection of Ian Brumfield.
157 * "Harris Visible, Rex Visible, Demountable; Name variants; Vim Visible" by Will Davis.
See: https://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/01/harris-visible-rex-visible-demountable.html
158 * "1973 NOMDA Blue Book" by National Office Machine Dealers Association.
159 * "Olympia Engineering Bulletin General-3" by ITC, Jan 1, 1969.
See: https://oldhoodooblog.wordpress.com/2020/03/20/identifying-and-dating-antique-caligraph-writing-machines-typewriters-nos-1-4/
161 * "Some Type Writers - Their Origin and Uses" By J. B. Huling in Scientific American #575 - January 8, 1887.
162 * "Typewriter, A Celebration of the Ultimate Writing Machine" by Paul Robert and Peter Weil, 2016.
163 * "The Caligraph Publications" by Paul Robert.
164 * "Magic, Maligners and Malfunctions. Part IV – the Waverley, Maskelyne, Rapid, Salter and Many More." by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2020/07/magic-maligners-and-malfunctions-part.html
165 * "Burroughs Adding Machine Company - Typewriters"
See: http://www.burroughsinfo.com/typewriters.html
166 * "Hall Typewriter Serial Numbers" by Al Sumrall
167 * LC Smith and Corona Service Bulletins (1939-1954) From the collection of T. Munk
168 * "Research on Halberg" by Theo Verkerk
See: https://www.facebook.com/groups/TypewriterCollectors/permalink/10157289533199678/
169 * Royal Royalite Parts Manuals 1955-1965 From the collection of T. Munk
See: https://www.fiddlebase.com/frister-rossmann/f-r-typewriters/
171 * Dial-a-Ribbon & Typing by Numbers
See: https://etzone.org/2022/05/05/dial-a-ribbon-typing-by-numbers
172 * etzone - a summary of Sharp's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/sharp-2/
173 * etzone - a summary of Canon's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/canon/
174 * etzone - a summary of Nakajima All's electronic daisy wheel models
See: https://etzone.org/nakajima-all/
175 * "Nakajima Model 800 Typewriter: The most surprising machine of ALL" by Robert Messenger
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/07/nakajima-model-800-typewriter-most.html
176 * Établissements Japy Frères, Historique et technologie des machines à écrire, [1946]
From the collection of Georg Sommeregger