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Fox Typewriter Brand Notes

Fox typewriter serial number age list, Fox typewriter model list Fox information

Fox Typewriter Serial Numbers

Also known as Baby FoxRapid (Fox)

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/4/16 12:10
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

History 1896-1898
Patents:
US614943
Filed Oct 19, 1896 • Issued Nov 29, 1898
US633827
Filed Nov 26, 1897 • Issued Sep 26, 1899
US633826 (electric?)
Filed Nov 8, 1897 • Issued Sep 26, 1899
US656785
Filed Mar 9, 1899 • Issued Aug 28, 1900
US670477
Filed Dec 9, 1899 • Issued Mar 26, 1901
US672523
Filed Oct 1, 1898 • Issued Apr 23, 1901
US697430
Filed Jun 12, 1900 • Issued Apr 15, 1902
US706749
Filed Nov 4, 1899 • Issued Aug 12, 1902
US727340
Filed Oct 1, 1898 • Issued May 5, 1903
US771620
Filed Dec 11, 1901 • Issued Oct 4, 1904
US775269
Filed Jul 31, 1902 • Issued Nov 15, 1904
US775270
Filed Dec 6, 1902 • Issued Nov 15, 1904
US837554
Filed Jul 31, 1902 • Issued Dec 4, 1906
US839129
Filed Sep 16, 1904 • Issued Dec 25, 1906
US839746
Filed Jul 17, 1905 • Issued Dec 25, 1906
US852427
Filed Dec 6, 1902 • Issued May 7, 1907
US852428
Filed Jun 7, 1906 • Issued May 7, 1907
US853965
Filed Feb 1, 1907 • Issued May 21, 1907
US854207
Filed Oct 29, 1904 • Issued May 21, 1907
US855509
Filed Mar 16, 1907 • Issued Jun 4, 1907
US856629
Filed Sep 16, 1904 • Issued Jun 11, 1907
US863372
Filed Apr 23, 1906 • Issued Aug 13, 1907
US864777
Filed Mar 4, 1907 • Issued Sep 3, 1907
US872809
Filed Feb 1, 1907 • Issued Dec 3, 1907
US879159
Filed Apr 23, 1906 • Issued Feb 18, 1908
US880290
Filed Jun 7, 1907 • Issued Feb 25, 1908
US880648
Filed Mar 16, 1907 • Issued Mar 3, 1908
US882058
Filed May 6, 1904 • Issued Mar 17, 1908
US912660
Filed Apr 23, 1906 • Issued Feb 16, 1909
US931855
Filed Dec 14, 1907 • Issued Aug 24, 1909
US978871
Filed Jan 21, 1907 • Issued Dec 20, 1910
US1001749
Filed Mar 19, 1906 • Issued Aug 29, 1911
US1014962
Filed Jun 5, 1911 • Issued Jan 16, 1912
US1015384
Filed Dec 6, 1910 • Issued Jan 23, 1912
US1087650
Filed Dec 9, 1911 • Issued Feb 17, 1914
US1096234
Filed Mar 4, 1907 • Issued May 12, 1914
US1163133
Filed Jun 7, 1907 • Issued Dec 7, 1915
US1163134
Filed Jan 18, 1912 • Issued Dec 7, 1915
Patented in 1898 by William R. Fox and Glen J. Barrett and manufactured by the Fox Typewriter Co., 472 Front St., Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA.
The design was complicated and expensive to manufacture, and while high-quality, it eventually doomed the company, helped along by legal problems with Corona.

Models 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 10 all Blind-Writers.
Models 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28 all Visible Writers.
Models 1 and 2: 2,800 Total machines.
Model 3: 8,500 Total machines.
Model 4: 3,700 Total machines.
Models 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 20: 1,000 Total machines.

65,67,93
Platen Diameter       unknown  
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
No. 1
1-50
1898 Model 1 introduced. First standard machine; 4-row upstrike, 39 keys. Total Machines: 50
Model 10 introduced. Export version of the Model 1 and later on the Model 3.
67
No. 2
51-175
1899 Total Machines: 125
Model 2 introduced. Improved 4-row upstrike, with 44 keys.
67
176-1000 1900     Total Machines: 825 67
No. 3,4,5,6,7,8
1001-2250
1901 Total Machines: 1250
Model 3 introduced in April. Successor to Model 1; 4-row upstrike, 39 keys.
Model 4 introduced in April. Successor to Model 2; 4-row upstrike, 44 keys; Decimal Tabulator introduced in 1904.
Model 5 introduced. Carriage takes paper 12 inches wide, writes 9.5 inches.
Model 6 introduced. Carriage Takes paper 14.5 inches wide, writes 12 inches.
Model 7 introduced. Carriage Takes paper 16.5 inches wide, writes 14 inches.
Model 8 introduced. Carriage Takes paper 19 inches wide, writes 16.5 inches.
67
2251-3700 1902     Total Machines: 1500 67
3751-7000 1903     Total Machines: 3250 67
7001-11000 1904     Total Machines: 4000
Decimal Tabulator on Model 4.
67
11001-16000 1905     Total Machines: 5000 67
No. 23
16001-19000
1906 Total Machines: 3000
February, 1906: Visible frontstroke announced to the trade, priced at $100.
Model 23 began. First visible machine, initially for the domestic market; tabulator introduced shortly after introduction, backspace added February 1910. Spiritual successor to Model 3. Platen 9.5" writing 7.5".
Two-speed escapement, segment shift, ball bearing carriage, bichrome ribbon, 39 keys, interchangable carriage, line lock, decimal tabulator (optional).
Fox visible machines run in serial numbers from 16,000 to about 125,000. The No. 23 machine disappears around serial 36,000. The serial is the second of the two numbers.
67,93
No. 24,25,26,27,28
19001-25500
1907 Total Machines: 6500
Model 24 introduced. At first the export model, before being transitioned into an spiritual successor to the Model 4. Platen 9.5" writing 7.5".
Model 25 began. Wide Carriage; Platen 12", writing 9.5".
Model 26 began. Wide Carriage; Platen 14.5", writing 12".
Model 27 began. Wide Carriage; Platen 16.5", writing 14".
Model 28 began. Wide Carriage; Platen 19", writing 17".
Two-speed escapement, segment shift, ball bearing carriage, bichrome ribbon, 44 keys, interchangable carriage, line lock, decimal tabulator (optional).
67,93
25501-32000 1908     Total Machines: 6500
The single-key tabulator was introduced 1908.
67
32001-43000 1909     Total Machines: 11000
The backspacer was introduced March of 1909.
67
Rapid 10
42001-46500
1910     Total Machines: 3500
"Rapid 10" Model 23 rebuilt at factory for surplus sale.
67
46501-52000 1911     Total Machines: 5500 67
New No. 24,25,26,28
52001-60000
1912 Total Machines: 8000
March, 1912: "New" Fox Visible line introduced. Small improvements including addition of carriage release lever on right side, repositioning backspace key, lighter touch. "Double Bevel" escapement replaces old "Two Speed" escapement. Removable, conical ribbon spool. New cemented celluloid dished keytops. 44 keys. Model 24 carriage now handles larger paper, and Model 23 and 27 are omitted from the product line:
Model 24. Normal Carriage; Platen 10.5", writing 8.5".
Model 25. Wide Carriage; Platen 12", writing 9.5".
Model 26. Wide Carriage; Platen 14.5", writing 12".
Model 28. Wide Carriage; Platen 19", writing 17".
The introduction of the carriage release lever on the right side of the carriage occurred in 1912.
67,93
60001-67000 1913     Total Machines: 7000
Fox begins filing patents for simplifications to his design, hoping to decrese the cost of manufacturing the machine. None of these improvements are incorporated, however, and costs do not decrease.
67,93
67001-73000 1914     Total Machines: 6000
67,93
73001-75500 1915 1-5   January through May 1915 - Total Machines: 2500
Fox Typewriter plant is partly idled as William R. Fox sells his interest in the company in January and the Fox Typewriter Co. reorganizes July 19, 1915. W.R. Fox returns to the Fox Machine Co. and removes to Jackson, Michigan, USA. Fox is now headed by Earl Stokoe, Irving Frank and F. I Chichester.
65,67,94
100000-102000 1915 6-12   June through December 1915 - Total Machines: 2000 67
102001-105120 1916     Total Machines: 3120
October 1916: Fox becomes the first US manufacturer to announce that it is developing an in-house portable to compliment the line of standards.
67,94
105121-108240 1917     Total Machines: 3120
Fox introduces portable Fox No. 1 (see below).
General Sales Manager Irving Franks resigns his position and sells his stock.
Fox Typewriter Co. increases its stock capitalization 2.5x, with the issuance purchsed by existing shareholders.
67,93,94
108241-111360 1918     Total Machines: 3120
Glass topped nickle-rimmed keytops can now often be found rather than celluloid keytops. They appear often in advertising images through 1914-1915 and start showing up around serial 110,000
May 1918: Fox Typewriter Co. increases stock capitalization to $450,000.
67,93,94
111360-117600 1919     Total Machines: 6240
July 1919: Corona Typewriter Co. files suit against Fox Typewriter Co., claiming both infringement of multiple patents held or controlled by them, and unfair competition. This action began a drawn out process that would continue for three years.
67
117600-123840 1920     Total Machines: 6240 67
123840-124700 1921     Total Machines: 860 67
           
Fox Portable aka Baby Fox 1917 Patents:
US1337563
Filed Dec 26, 1917 • Issued Apr 20, 1920
Designed by Henry P. Nordmark so that its carriage pushed down behind the typewriter when the machine was to be stowed for use. 94
Platen Diameter       unknown  
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
No. 1
1-1000
1917 Portable No. 1 first advertised November 1917, ran series 1-10000.
Weight 5 3/4lbs, 3" high when folded, sold for $50.
Segment shifted 3 bank collapsing portable, bichrome ribbon, variable line spacing, carriage release on right side only.
67,94
1001-4000 1918       67
4001-8000 1919       67
No. 2
8001-11750
1920 Portable No. 2 ran series 10000-12000, introduced July, 1920.
August 27, 1920: first court case in the series of lawsuits between Corona and Fox is decided in favor of Corona. An injunction against Fox is granted.
67,94
Sterling
11751-13000
1921 Fox Sterling (AKA No. 3) began around February 1921 and ran series 12000-13000.
Non-collapsing 3-bank portable. Other than having a fixed carriage, it is mechanically similar to previous model.
March 1921: Fox Typewriter Company is declared in receivership. W. A. Papworth is appointed by the court as Receiver and General Manager.
67,94
  1922     March 1922: it is reported that the sale of Fox Typewriter Co. to Wesley H. Bennington of Xcel Typewriter Co. is imminent, but this deal falls through on July 1, 1922.
July 15, 1922: Fox reduces its capitalization from $450,000 to $45,000.
August 1922: court orders sale of Fox Typewriter Co. at foreclosure sale.
November 1922: Second legal battle between Corona and Fox is decided mostly in favor of Fox. It is a Phyrrhic victory, though, because Fox is no more.
94

Fox Typewriter: Links to History



Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk