The Typewriter Database

To find out when your typewriter was made, start by choosing the brand from the select box below.

Select Brand:

Green Serial #'s • Black notes, no #'s • Grey no info.

LOG IN  |  FORGOT PASSWORD?  |  REGISTER TODAY

Remington (Brother) Typewriter Brand Notes

Remington (Brother) typewriter serial number age list, Remington (Brother) typewriter model list Remington (Brother) information

Remington (Brother) Typewriter Serial Numbers

Brand: Brother Also known as Antares (Brother)BradfordBrother PrestigeContinental (Brother)Cornelia RekordCoronadoKmart (Brother)LemairLemair-HelvetiaMajesticMontgomery WardPrivileg (Brother)Remington (Brother)Sears (Brother)VendexWebsterWedgefieldWestern Auto (Brother)Wizard TrueType

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/7/17 02:56
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
Portables, Desk Models, Electrics and Electronics    
        Brother serial numbers have an embedded date code which tells you the Month (usually), and the final digit of the year the machine was made. There is no "decade" code, so in order to tell if a serial number starting with "A4" was made in January 1964, 1974, 1984 or 1994, one has to examine general telling construction features in models that were made over several decades to determine the decade in which it was made. The branding can also be helpful. 43,44

Serial Location

Brother serial numbers are stamped onto a metallic label that is applied to the back shell of the machine. Usually the label will state "Built in Nagoya, Japan" or some variation of this, and on Store-Branded machines, will also state the store's model designation.  

RULE ONE

(Month Code)
The First Digit of your serial number is usually a letter. This is the "Month Code" which tells you what month your machine was made in. The letters are A through M, omitting "I" (which could be mistaken for the number "1").
  • A = January
  • B = February
  • C = March
  • D = April
  • E = May
  • F = June
  • G = July
  • H = August
  • J = September
  • K = October
  • L = November
  • M = December
Note that we have seen more than a few examples here in the Database which have no letter month code. It seems to be the case that in these examples, the first digit is the "Year Code". (see below)
NOTE: Many early examples of the JP-1 have the date code "P". These all appear to be first year of production 1961 machines - Valiants, Wizard Truetypes and Bradfords with wire-loop paper rests. It is probable that Brother used the "P" prefix when ramping up initial production, and then later reverting to the Month Codes listed above.
43,44

RULE TWO

(Year Code)
The Second Digit of your serial number is a number from 0-9. This is the "Year Code", and is the final digit of the year that the machine was made in. To find out what decade your machine was made in, it is necessary to consider in which decade the model was made, and certain features in models that were made for multiple decades. (see below) 43,44

RULE THREE

(after 1980)
The Third and Fourth Digit of many serial numbers beyond 1980 are numbers from 0-9. These are a "Model Code" in serial numbers that have them. Source #44 tells us the Model Codes for the circa 1985 2024L Dot Matrix Printer, and these are the only ones we know for sure. Examination of examples in the database suggest that early models such as the JP-1 do not have model codes. It is possible that electronic wedge machines do. 44

RULE FOUR

(Find Your Decade Range)
How to figure out the Decade in which your machine was manufactured. Now that your serial number has informed you which month and the final digit of the year that your machine was made in, what remains is to figure out which decade it was created in. Brother has been building machines (not only typewriters, but sewing machines, word processors, computer printers and other appliances) since 1961 up to the present day. These machines all have a serial number that follow the above patterns. Thus, to find the decade, you need to find out what specific MODEL TYPE your typewriter is. This is not the "Model" designation that is stated on the machine itself, although you can sometimes determine the MODEL TYPE from the "Model" designation. Brother typewriters were branded in a dizzying array of Brands and Models, though, so it's usually more useful to refer to what the machine looks like and what it's features are. Below is a table defining the 21 "JP" MODEL TYPES, what models were generally contained within that MODEL TYPE, what years they were in production, and what features to look for within certain decades. 47

Example

Let's take some examples from a collector with a wide variety of MODEL TYPEs to try out.
Here's a good one, the Brother section of Mr. Martin's Typewriter Museum.
First one, his Signature 510D serial #C00557290. This large-ish manual is a JP-3, only made between 1964 and 1975. It would be March (C), 1970 (0).
Second, the Brother Accord 10 serial #G81552668 would be a JP-7 made in July (G), 1978 (8), as the JP-7 was only made between 1975 and about 1984.
Third, his Brother Opus 885 serial #D9387228 would be a JP-1 with white keytops and straight-bar paper rest that would have to have been made between 1964 and 1974. Thus April (D), 1969 (9).
The fourth one, the Brother Correct-O-Ball XL-1 serial #H11305441 is a JP-11, made from 1977 to around 1984. August (H), 1981 (1).
I recognize the next two examples as a JP-10 and a JP-12 without serial numbers provided for exact dating.
 
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-1       Small, flat, carriage-shifted portable manual typewriter. Manufactured in at least 6 different metal shells, and at least one rounded plastic shell.  
x1xxxxx 1961     JP-1 Began. Features: White keytops, wire loop paper rest that folds over machine, or on less expensive models, no paper rest, but a metal carriage shell painted the same color as the rest of the shell.
Known Models: Brother Valiant, Bradford, Brother Deluxe, Wizard TrueType
 
x2xxxxx 1962     Known Models: Valiant, Bradford, Wizard Truetype  
x3xxxxx 1963     Known Models: Signature 100 (Montgomery Ward begins branding Brothers in this year), Valiant, Bradford, Wizard Truetype  
x4xxxxx 1964     JP-1 Design change: Wire loop paper rest discontinued sometime in 1964. Replaced with straight bar switchblade-style paper rest. White keytops continue.
JP-1 Models made prior to this design change will have WHITE keytops and WIRE LOOP PAPER REST or NO PAPER REST. Models made after will have WHITE keytops and STRAIGHT BAR PAPER REST.
Known Models: Brother 700, 1200, 1600, 2000. (these ended 1977?) Brother 800, 800T, 850TR, 900, 1350, 660. (these ended 1979?) Charger 11, K-Mart 100, Signature 440 (metal, dk grey with white keys), Valiant, Bradford, Wizard Truetype
 
x5xxxxx 1965     Known Models: Webster, Brother Deluxe, Wizard Truetype, Typemaster  
x6xxxxx 1966     Known Models: Brother DeLuxe, 895, Wizard TrueType, Signature 440T (metal, white w/dk grey keys or dk grey with white keys), Sears, K-Mart 100  
x7xxxxx 1967     Known Models: Brother Charger 870, DeLuxe, Opus 888, Webster XL-500, K-Mart 100, Majestic 600, Wizard Truetype  
x8xxxxx 1968     By 1968, Brother began manufacturing Cycolac plastic-shelled JP-1 typewriters for Montgomery Ward and other retailers.
Known Models: Brother DeLuxe, Signature 440T (plastic, brown), Webster XL-500, K-Mart Deluxe 100, Wizard Truetype
 
x9xxxxx 1969     Known Models: Brother Pro-Line 715, Deluxe, Opus 885, Webster XL-500, XL-800, Signature 440T (plastic, brown), Wizard Truetype  
x0xxxxx 1970     Known Models: Brother Opus 888, 889, Pro-Line 714, Echelon 77, Echelon 91, Webster XL-747, Signature 300T (plastic, beige), 440T (plastic, yellow), Wizard Truetype  
x1xxxxx 1971     Known Models: Brother Deluxe 1350, Valiant 391, Webster XL-747, Wedgefield 100, Majestic 812, Wizard Truetype  
x2xxxxx 1972     Known Models: Brother Charger 11, Activator 899, Wizard Automatic, Wedgefield 100  
x3xxxxx 1973     Known Models: K-Mart 200  
x4xxxxx 1974     In late 1974 and 1975, all JP-1 models were gradually migrated from having white keytops to black keytops. JP-5 and JP-7 manual typewriters began, and they all have black keytops.
JP-1 Models made prior to this design change will have WHITE keytops. Models made after will have BLACK keytops. (exception: many 1966 Signature 440T models have DARK GREY keytops)
 
x5xxxxx 1975     Known Models: Brother 300T, 1300, 1350, Performer (333RS), 800, 800T, 850TR, 900, Charger 11 (C-11), Sears Correction, Celebrity 12 with Correction, Majestic 600, 812  
x6xxxxx 1976     Known Models: Brother Charger 11  
x7xxxxx 1977     JP-1 minor design changes, Many metal-shelled models now have a black plastic carriage shell piece with paper rest omitted.
Began Brother Models 100, 200, 210, 222, 240T, 250TR, 262TR.
Known Models: Brother Charger 11
 
x8xxxxx 1978     Known Models: Brother M100, Charger 11 (C-11), 200, 210, 220, 240T, 250TR, 300, 300T, 350TR, 800, 800T, 850TR, 900, 1300, 1350, Performer (333RS).  
x9xxxxx 1979        
x0xxxxx 1980     Many Brother typewriters of 1980 have a sticker celebrating "10 million typewriters made 1961-1980"
Known Models: Brother Deluxe 220, Citation Correction
 
x1xxxxx 1981        
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-1 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty.  
x3xxxxx 1983        
x4xxxxx 1984        
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: Brother Charger 11  
x6xxxxx 1986        
x7xxxxx 1987     Known Models: Brother Charger 11  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-2       Small, portable, Electric typebar typewriter. Distinctive Push-button ribbon color selector.  
x5xxxxx 1965     JP-2 Began. 49
x8xxxxx 1968     JP-2 Offered in 1968 Montgomery Ward Christmas Catalog as "Signature 1010".  
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-2 Modified. Known Models: Brother 6211, 6213, 711, 713, Signature 1010D, 1013D, 1003D.  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-2 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty.  
x4xxxxx 1984     I've found no evidence that the JP-2 was manufactured past 1984.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-3       Large, portable, Segment-Shifted Manual typewriter. Distinctive Push-button ribbon color selector.  
x4xxxxx 1964     JP-3 Began.
Known Models: Signature 510, 511, 510D, 511D
 
x5xxxxx 1965     Known Models: Signature 500, 510  
x9xxxxx 1969     Known Models: Brother Pro-Line 715  
x0xxxxx 1970     Known Models: Signature 510D, Brother Echelon 91  
x1xxxxx 1971     Known Models: Signature 511D, Brother Opus 901  
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-3 Discontinued.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-4       Compact Electric typebar typewriter.  
x4xxxxx 1964     JP-4 Probably began.  
x0xxxxx 1970     JP-4 Confirmed existed.
Known Models: Brother 1210, 1220, 1230, 1720, 1730, XL-3000, 4011, Remington 611, 612, Signature 810, 811D, 812D
47
x1xxxxx 1971     JP-4 Modified.
Known Models: Brother 1230, 1730, 4511, Remington 612, Signature 812
47
x3xxxxx 1973     JP-4 Modified.
Known Models: Brother 1230, 1730, Signature 812D, Webster XL3000, Wedgefield 1000, Remington Monarch 611, Automatic 613
47
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-4 Probably Discontinued.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-5       Segment-Shifted, Plastic-Shelled, portable Dowel Rod Manual typewriter.  
x4xxxxx 1974     JP-5 Began.
Known Models: Brother 1600, 1613, Full-Matic 24
 
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-5 Confirmed Existed.
Known Models: Sears Manual 1, Manual 2
47
x6xxxxx 1976     Known Models: Sears Manual 1, Manual 2  
x1xxxxx 1981     Known Models: Brother Deluxe 1613  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-5 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
x4xxxxx 1984     I've found no evidence that the JP-5 was manufactured past 1984.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-6       Brother MODEL TYPE pattern suggests that if it did exist, it would have been an Electric Typebar machine.  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-6. 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-7       Deluxe Plastic-Shelled, portable, Dowel Rod Manual typewriter.  
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-7 Began.
Known Models: Brother 700, 700T, 750TR, 760TR, 762TR
 
x6xxxxx 1976     JP-7 Began.
Known Models: Brother 300 Deluxe 12
 
x7xxxxx 1977     Known Models: Brother M650TR, M660TR, M662TR, M700, M700T, M750TR, Accord 10, M750TR (Arabic), M760TR, M760TR (With Variable Platen), M760TR (Arabic), M762TR, Accord 12, M762TR (With Variable Platen), M762TR (Arabic), K-Mart 300 Deluxe 12  
x8xxxxx 1978     Known Models: Brother Accord 10  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-7 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
x4xxxxx 1984     I've found no evidence that the JP-7 was manufactured past 1984.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-8       "Full" Electric Typebar portable.  
x1xxxxx 1971     Models Known: Brother 3500, 3512, 4500, 4512. 47
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-8 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-9       Probably an Electric Typebar portable.  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-9. 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-10       Portable Electric typebar typewriter with Cassette Ribbon.  
x5xxxxx 1975     JP-10 Probably Began.  
x6xxxxx 1976     Design change to electrical components and power roll. 47
x1xxxxx 1981     Design change, major revision to Parts & Service manual. 47
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-10 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
x3xxxxx 1983     Known Models: L-10, XL-10, XL20, XL-80.  
x4xxxxx 1984     I've found no evidence that the JP-10 was manufactured past 1984.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-11       Portable Correcting Electric Ball Element typewriter.  
x7xxxxx 1977     JP-11 Probably Began.  
x1xxxxx 1981     Known Models: Brother Correct-O-Ball XL-1, 7200, Super 7200, Super 7200D, 7300, Super 7300, Super 7300D 47
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-11. 47
x3xxxxx 1983     Known Models: 7300.  
x4xxxxx 1984     Known Models: 7300.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-11X       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (CE Series)  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-11x. 47
x4xxxxx 1984     Known Models: CE-25, Compactronic I 47
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: Brother CE-25, CE-222, CE-30, CE-35, CE-333, Correctronic 35, Compactronic 333, Student-Riter XL1, Pro-Riter XL II 47
x6xxxxx 1986     Known Models: Brother CE-25, CE-222, CE-35, CE-333 47
x8xxxxx 1988     Known Models: Brother CE-30  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-12       Portable Electric typebar typewriter with Cassette Ribbon.  
x2xxxxx 1972     Known Models: Brother Electric 3000 (Spiegel Christmas Catalog 1972)  
x7xxxxx 1977     Known Models: Model M4612, Profile AUTOMATIC 12, M3112, Profile ELECTRIC 12, M4600, Fairmont AUTOMATIC 12, M3612, M3600, M4812, M4712, Correct-O-Riter I. 47
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-12 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: Correct-O-Riter  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-12X       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (AX Series)  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-12X. 47
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: Brother AX-10, AX-12, AX-15M, AX-20, AX-33, B-10M, Compactronic 300M, Compactronic 310, Compactronic 350, EM-30, EM-30 II, EM-31 47
x6xxxxx 1986     Known Models: Brother AX-10, AX-12, Compactronic 300 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-13       No information known.  
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for DOES NOT mention the JP-13. 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-14       Portable Correcting Electric Ball Element typewriter. (Correct-O-Ball)  
x8xxxxx 1978     JP-14 Began.
Known Models: Brother Select-O-Riter, Select-O-Riter II, Selecta 7500, 7600, Super 7800, Correct-O-Ball XL-7800, Super 7900
47,49
x2xxxxx 1982     A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-14 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. 47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-15, JP-15X       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (EM Series)  
x0xxxxx 1980     Known Models: EM-1 (JP-15) 49
x2xxxxx 1982     Known Models: EM-1, EM-2 (JP-15)
A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-15 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty. This document DOES NOT mention the JP-15X.
47
x3xxxxx 1983     Known Models: EM-1, EM-2 (JP-15)
Known Models: EM-100, EM-200, EM-701, EM-711 (JP-15x)
47
x4xxxxx 1984     Known Models: EM-1, EM-2 (JP-15)
Known Models: EM-80, EM-85, EM-100, EM-200 (JP-15x)
47
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: EM-1, EM-2 (JP-15)
Known Models: EM-200, EM-501, EM-511, EM-701, EM-711 (JP-15x)
47
x6xxxxx 1986     Known Models: EM-1, EM-2 (JP-15)
Known Models: EM-80, EM-85, EM-100, EM-200, EM-250, EM-501, EM-511, EM-701, EM-711, EM-811, EM-1000 (JP-15x)
47
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-16, JP-16X, JP-16XX       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (CE Series)  
x1xxxxx 1981     Known Models: Brother M8300, M8400, M9300 (JP-16) 47
x2xxxxx 1982     Known Models: Brother M8300, M9300 (JP-16)
Known Models: CE-50, Correctronic 50, CE-60, Compactronic 60, Executron 65 (JP-16X)
A 1982 addendum showing which models the technician was expected to keep specialized tools for suggests that the JP-16 was still either in production, or was at least still under warranty.
47,49
x3xxxxx 1983     Known Models: CE-40, Correctronic 40, CE-70, Executron 70 (JP-16X) 47
x4xxxxx 1984     Known Models: Brother M8300, M9300 (JP-16)
Known Models: CE-40, CE-45, CE-50, CE-58, Compactronic 58, CE-60, CE-65, CE-68, Executron 68, CE-70 (JP-16X)
47
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: CE-40, CE-45, CE-50, CE-50XL, CE-58, CE-555, CE-60, CE-65, CE-68, CE-666, CE-70, EM-80, EM-85 (JP-16X) 47
x6xxxxx 1986     Known Models: Brother M8300, M9300 (JP-16)
Known Models: EM401, Professional 90, Professional 400, CE-40, CE-45, CE-50, CE550, CE-555, CE-58, CE-60, CE-65, CE-666, CE-68, CE-70 (JP-16X)
Known Models: EM411, CE650, X70, Professional 80, Professional 440 (JP-16XX)
47
x7xxxxx 1987     Known Models: Professional 95, Professional 420, Professional 460 (JP-16XX) 47
           
         
MODEL TYPE: JP-17       Unknown. I have no record of a JP-17 ever existing.  
           
MODEL TYPE: JP-18       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (AX Series)  
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: AX-10 (JP-18). 49
x7xxxxx 1987     Known Models: AX-24, AX-22, AX-26, AX-28, AX-18. AX-15, Correctronic 320, Correctronic 340, Correctronic 360, Correctronic 380 (JP-18).
Note: The AX-24 and Correctronic 340 are "V20 Type" (Made in USA) vs. "V10 Type" (Made in Japan).
Note: The AX-26 and Correctronic 360 are "V30 Type" vs. "V10 Type".
Note: The AX-28 and Correctronic 380 are "V30 Type" vs. "V10 Type".
47
x8xxxxx 1988     Known Models: AX-25 (JP-18).
Note: The AX-25 is "V25 Type" (Made in USA) vs. "V10 Type" (Made in Japan).
47
x9xxxxx 1989     Known Models: AX-22, AX-24, SX-16, SX-23, HQ-220, Correctronic 145, Correctronic 340 (JP-18).
Note: The AX-24, SX-23, HQ-220 and Correctronic 340 are "V62 Type" (Made in USA) vs. "V61 Type" (Made in Japan).
47
           
MODEL EP Series       Portable Electronic Thermal Dot-Matrix typewriter. (EP Series)  
x2xxxxx 1982     EP Series started. Known Models: EP-20  
x3xxxxx 1983     Known Models: EP-20, EP-22  
x4xxxxx 1984        
x5xxxxx 1985     Known Models: EP-43, EP-44, Type-A-Graph  
x6xxxxx 1986        
x7xxxxx 1987     Known Models: EP-5, EP-150 47
           
MODEL AX-β Series       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (AX, GX)  
x9xxxxx 1989     AX-β Series started.
Known Models: AX-250, AX-350, AX-110, AX-120, GX-6000, GX-7000
47
x2xxxxx 1992     Known Models: GX-6000 47
           
MODEL WP-1α Series       Electronic Word Processing typewriter. (WP-1α Series)  
x7xxxxx 1987     WP-1α Series started.
Known Models: WP-1, WP-5, WP-55, WP-500
47,49
x9xxxxx 1989     Known Models: WP-5, WP-75, WP-80, WP-85, WP-660, WP-6, WP-490, WP-4U, LW-1, WP-60, WP-65, WP-200, CT-1050 47
x7xxxxx 1997     Known Models: WP-5600 MDS  
           
MODEL SX/GX Series       Electronic Daisywheel typewriter. (SX, GX) Scalloped body style in light grey.  
x1xxxxx 2001     Known Models: SX-4000  
x4xxxxx 2004     Known Models: GX-7750  
x5xxxxx 2005     Known Models: SX-4000  
           



Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
See: http://www.typewritercollector.com/images/underwoodagelist.pdf
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
See: https://www.perrier-sa.ch/musee/boutique/
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/01/korean-typewriters.html