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Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers for all Tower typewriter models. Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers for models: Tower Attaché (Skyriter), Tower Challenger, Tower Chieftain, Tower Chieftain II, Tower Chieftain III, Tower Citation 88, Tower Collegian, Tower Commander, Tower Constellation, Tower Electric, Tower Portable, Tower President, Tower President XII, Tower Quiet-Tabulator, Tower Standard, Tower Tabulator 2019-01-13 12:14 Look up Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for Tower typewriter models: Tower Attaché (Skyriter), Tower Challenger, Tower Chieftain, Tower Chieftain II, Tower Chieftain III, Tower Citation 88, Tower Collegian, Tower Commander, Tower Constellation, Tower Electric, Tower Portable, Tower President, Tower President XII, Tower Quiet-Tabulator, Tower Standard, Tower Tabulator Find out how old your typewriter is. Look up Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers to find the ages for Tower typewriter models: Tower Attaché (Skyriter), Tower Challenger, Tower Chieftain, Tower Chieftain II, Tower Chieftain III, Tower Citation 88, Tower Collegian, Tower Commander, Tower Constellation, Tower Electric, Tower Portable, Tower President, Tower President XII, Tower Quiet-Tabulator, Tower Standard, Tower Tabulator

Tower Typewriter Serial Numbers

Also known as Tower (Consul)

Tower Typewriter Models: Tower Attaché (Skyriter), Tower Challenger, Tower Chieftain, Tower Chieftain II, Tower Chieftain III, Tower Citation 88, Tower Collegian, Tower Commander, Tower Constellation, Tower Electric, Tower Portable, Tower President, Tower President XII, Tower Quiet-Tabulator, Tower Standard, Tower Tabulator


Serial Number Table Last Edited: 01/13/19 12:14
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Tower 1949-1963 Tower was the Sears Department store and Catalog company's in-house brand for a number of things, but of main concern to us is the 13 year period that the "Tower" brand typewriters were sold. Sears purchased runs of machines from a handful of manufacturers between Fall 1949 through Fall 1963 and sold them through their national distribution network throughout the USA and Canada. After 1963, the "Tower" brand was dropped from typewriters in favor of simply the Sears brand in the USA.
In Canada, Sears-Simpsons re-branded Patrias and Consuls as Towers around 1957. We're not sure if the Patrias were Swiss-made or Spanish-made, so try your luck at either.
 

Index:

 
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
         

Tower Standard

   
  1949-1952 Brand New 1950 Model announced in Sears 1949 Fall Catalog @ $99. Manufactured by R.C. Allen and similar to R.C. Allen Model 600. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1949 through Spring 1952 with no price reduction. 147
  1956-1959 New 1956 Model announced in Sears 1956 Fall Catalog @ $164. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Model SX and available with carriage sizes: 11" @$164, 13" @ $169, and 15" @ $174 in Pica or Elite type. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1956 through Fall 1959 with no price reduction. 147
  1962-1963 New 1962 Model announced in Sears 1962 Fall Catalog @ $164.95. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Touchmaster Five and available with carriage sizes: 11" @$164.95, 13" @ $169.95, and 15" @ $174.95 in Pica or Elite type. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1962 through Fall 1963 with no price reduction. In 1963, the "Tower" brand is dropped in favor of "Sears". 147
         

Tower Portable

   
L Series 1950-1953 Brand New 1950 Tower Portable Model announced in Sears 1950 Fall Catalog @ $64.75 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Leader. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1950 through Spring 1953 with price fluctuations each appearance: $67.50 (Spring 1951), $66.50 (spring 1952), $65.50 (Fall 1952), $59.50 (Spring 1953). 147
  1953-1955 Brand New 1953 Tower Portable Model announced in Sears 1953 Fall Catalog @ $84.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Leader. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1953 through Fall 1955 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $84.50 (Spring 1954), $84.50 (Fall 1954), $87.50 (Spring & Fall 1955). 147
  1956 New 1956 Tower Portable Model with slight changes to shell appears in Sears 1956 Spring Catalog @ $93.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Leader. Appears in Spring 1956 and quickly vanishes as Underwood is roiled with the Olivetti buyout and Sears starts buying portables from Smith-Corona and Olivetti. This model marks the end of the generalized "Portable" model designation in favor of named portable models. 147
         

Tower Tabulator

   
T & L Series 1951-1953 Brand New 1951 Tower Tabulator Model announced in Sears 1951 Fall Catalog @ $82.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Underwood and similar to Underwood Universal. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1951 through Spring 1953 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $82.50 (spring 1952), $78.95 (Fall & Christmas 1952), $71.95 (Spring 1953). 147
5CT Series 1960 New 1960 Tower Tabulator Model announced in Sears 1960 Fall Catalog @ $84.95 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 5-Series "Super-5" parts. 147
         

Tower Quiet Tabulator

   
5ST Series 1956-1958 Brand New 1956 Tower Quiet Tabulator Model announced in Sears 1956 Fall Catalog @ $97.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 5-Series "Super-5" parts. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1956 through Spring 1958 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $89.50 (Spring 1957), $96.50 (Fall 1957), $98.50 (Spring 1958). 147
         

Tower Challenger

   
4CR & 4CT Series 1954-1956 Brand New 1954 Tower Challenger Model announced in Sears 1954 Fall Catalog @ $72.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 4-Series "Speedline" parts from the 1940's. Color scheme is Grey wrinkle paint with dark green/light green plastic keytops similar to a 1949 SCM 5-Series. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1954 through Spring 1956 with a sudden price jump to $74.50, then this 4-Series model is renamed to "Commander" and the "Challenger" Model name is applied to a new SCM 5-Series machine. 147
5CT Series 1956-1959 New 1956 Tower Challenger Model announced in Sears 1956 Fall Catalog @ $79.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 5-Series "Super-5" parts. Color scheme is Grey wrinkle paint with dark green plastic keys. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1956 through Spring 1959 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $75.50 (Spring 1957), $79.50 (Fall 1957), $81.50 (Spring 1958), $77.50 (Fall 1958), $79.50 (Spring 1959) 147
  1962-1963 New 1962 Tower Challenger Model announced in Sears 1962 Christmas Catalog @ $59.88. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 6Y-Series British Cougar. Appears in catalogs from Christmas 1962 through Fall 1963 with a small price drop to $57.88 before the "Tower" brand is dropped in 1963. 147
         

Tower Commander

   
4AT Series 1956 New 1956 Tower Commander Model announced in Sears 1956 Fall Catalog @ $82.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 4-Series "Speedline" parts from the 1940's. Color scheme is Grey wrinkle paint with dark green/light green plastic keytops similar to a 1949 SCM 5-Series. Appears in Fall 1956 catalog only, and by 1957 the "Commander" badge is applied to a new 5-Series machine. This 4-Series model was previously named the "Challenger". 147
5AT Series 1957-1959 New 1957 Tower Commander Model announced in Sears 1957 Spring Catalog @ $79.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 5-Series "Super-5" parts. Color scheme is Grey wrinkle paint with dark green plastic keys. Appears in catalogs from Spring 1957 through Spring 1959 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $86.50 (Fall 1957), $88.50 (Spring 1958), $84.50 (Fall 1958 & Spring 1959). 147
  1959 New 1959 Tower Commander Model announced in Sears 1959 Fall Catalog @ $89.95. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. 147
  1962-1963 New 1962 Tower Commander Model found in Sears ads @ $77, reduced in 1963 to $74.88. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. 147
         

Tower President

   
5TT Series 1957-1958 New 1957 Tower President Model announced in Sears 1957 Christmas Catalog @ $109.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona 5-Series "Super-5" parts. Color scheme is Tan wrinkle paint with dark brown plastic keys. Appears in catalogs from Christmas 1957 through Spring 1958 with an almost immediate price drop to $99.50 (Fall, Christmas & Spring 1958). 147
         

Tower President XII

   
5LTT Series 1959-1960 New 1959 Tower President XII Model announced in Sears 1959 Fall Catalog @ $115 in Pica or Elite type. Artistic Script, Presidential Pica and Executive Elite type available @ $119. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. Color scheme is Tan and Cream or Black and White Smooth paint with white plastic keys. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1959 through Fall 1960 with no price change. 147
         

Tower Constellation

   
6LTT Series 1961-1963 New 1961 Tower Constellation Model announced in Sears 1961 Spring Catalog @ $106.88 in Pica or Elite type. Artistic Script, Presidential Pica and Executive Elite type available @ $110.88. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. Appears in catalogs from Spring 1961 through Fall 1963 with a slight price hike to $109.88 (Fall 1962 & Spring & Fall 1963). 147
         

Tower Citation

   
  1961 New 1961 Tower Citation Model announced in Sears 1961 Spring Catalog @ $86.44 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. Appears in Spring 1961 catalog only. 147
         

Tower Citation 88

   
T6A & 6AT Series 1961-1963 New 1961 Tower Citation 88 Model announced in Sears 1961 Fall Catalog @ $89.88 in Pica or Elite type. Finish colors Gray-beige or Pastel Blue. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and built from Smith-Corona "New 5 Series" parts. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1961 through Fall 1963 with no price change. 147
         

Tower Capri

   
  1961 New 1961 Tower Capri Model announced in Sears 1961 Spring Catalog @ $39.95 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Remington and similar to Remington Starfire. Appears in catalogs from Spring 1961 through Fall 1961 with no price change. 147
         

Tower Centurion

   
  1961 New 1961 Tower Centurion Model announced in Sears 1961 Spring Catalog @ $72.38 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Remington and similar to Remington Monarch. Appears in catalogs from Spring 1961 through Fall 1961 with no price change. 147
         

Tower Courier

   
  1956 Brand New 1956 Tower Courier Model announced in Sears 1956 Spring Catalog @ $62.95 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Olivetti and similar to Olivetti Lettera 22. Appears in Spring 1956 catalog and by the Christmas 1956 catalog is re-named the "Chieftain". 147
         

Tower Chieftain

   
No Prefix 1956-1958 New 1956 Tower Chieftain Model announced in Sears 1956 Christmas Catalog @ $64.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Olivetti and similar to Olivetti Lettera 22. Appears in catalogs from Christmas 1956 through Spring 1958 with some price fluctuations each appearance: $59.50 (Spring & Fall 1957), $61.50 (Spring 1958). 147
T4Y Series 1962-1963 New 1962 Tower Chieftain Model announced in Sears 1962 Fall Catalog @ $44.95 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to British Smith-Corona Skyriter. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1962 through Fall 1963 with a price drop to $44.44 (Spring & Fall 1963). The "Tower" brand name is dropped in 1963. 147
         

Tower Chieftain II

   
3YT Series 1958-1959 Brand New 1958 Tower Chieftain II Model announced in Sears 1958 Fall Catalog @ $59.50 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona Skyriter. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1958 through Spring 1959 with a price jump to $62.50. 147
         

Tower Chieftain III

   
3YT Series 1959-1960 Brand New 1959 Tower Chieftain III Model announced in Sears 1959 Fall Catalog @ $59.95 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona Skyriter. Appears in catalogs from Fall 1959 through Fall 1960 with a price drop to $49.95. 147
         

Tower Attache

   
4YT Series 1962 Brand New 1962 Tower Attache Model announced in Sears 1962 Fall Catalog @ $59.88 in Pica or Elite type. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona Skyriter, outfitted with a briefcase-style case. Appears in catalogs from Fall and Christmas 1962. 147
         

Tower Electric

   
T5SE Series 1961 Brand New 1961 Tower Electric Model announced in Sears 1961 Fall Catalog @ $139.95 in Pica or Elite type. Artistic Script, Elite Gothic #16 and Empire #65 type available @ $144.95. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona 1958 Electric, with custom shell. Appears in Fall 1961 catalog only in this configuration. 147
  1962-1963 New 1962 Tower Electric Model announced in Sears 1962 Fall Catalog @ $144.95 for 9 1/2" Carriage in Pica or Elite type, and $164.95 for 12" Carriage in Pica or Elite type. Artistic Script, Elite Gothic #16 and Empire #65 type available @ $149.95 for 9 1/2" Carriage or $169.95 for 12" Carriage. Manufactured by Smith-Corona and similar to Smith-Corona 1958 Electric, with custom shell (slight changes to faceplate for 1962). Appears in Fall 1962 and Spring 1963 catalogs with no price change. The 9 1/2" carriage version also appears in Fall 1963 catalog, and is the last "Tower" branded machine offered, as the branding changes to "Sears" for all other models in Fall 1963. 147
           

Tower Typewriter: Links to History


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
See: http://www.typewritercollector.com/images/underwoodagelist.pdf
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
See: https://www.perrier-sa.ch/musee/boutique/
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/01/korean-typewriters.html
135 * 1985 IBM Replacement Guide Form 71K6222, supplied by Clark Hinson from the collection of Roger Brockevelt
136 * "Blickensderfer’s last hurrah as a Remington" by Mark Adams.
See: https://type-writer.org/?p=4294
137 * Blickensderfer Research by Peter Weil, 2017
138 * Etcetera #106-107
139 * "Briefly Blick-Bar" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/briefly-blick-bar.html
140 "Lexikon historischer Schreibmaschinen seit 1940" (Typewriter Lexikon since 1940) published 2008 by Leonhard Dingwerth.
141 * "Olivetti macchine per scrivere meccaniche" published 2013 by Carlo Torchio.
From the collection of Carl Hartmann via Mario Bellini
142 * "The ABC in Detail" by Will Davis and Thomas FĂĽrtig.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/search?q=abc+in+detail
143 * "The Real Story of the Brosette Typewriter and its successor the Jaykay Portable" by Michael A. Brown.
See: http://typexnews.com/links/Brosette.pdf
144 * "A Royal Safari at Eighteen Years on the Net" by Will Davis.
See: https://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2018/03/a-royal-safari-at-eighteen-years-on-net.html
145 "The typewriter industry, The impact of a significant technological innovation" 1970 doctoral dissertation by George Nichols Engler, UCLA.
See: https://archive.org/details/TheTypewriterIndustry
146 * Research by Ian Brumfield
147 * Typewriter pages from Sears Catalogs: 1900-1985 From the collections of Alan Seaver (mostly), Nick Bodemer and T. Munk.
148 "Ten Most Wanted Typewriters" by Richard Polt.
See: https://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/tw-10mw.html
149 * Messa Research by Carl Hartmann.
150 "The Dawn of the Lettera 22" by John Cooper.
See: https://atypeofmadness.com/2019/02/12/the-dawn-of-the-lettera-22
151 "Litton Drags its Caravan Through the Typewriter Desert" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2019/03/litton-drags-its-caravan-through.html
152 "Typewriter review: 2019 Royal Classic" by Richard Polt.
See: https://writingball.blogspot.com/2019/03/typewriter-review-2019-royal-classic.html
153 "GENERATION 3000" by Will Davis.
See: http://www.willdavis.org/Generation3000.html
154 "Everything New in Portable Typewriters is Old Again" by Robert Messenger.
See: https://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/12/everything-new-in-portable-typewriters.html