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Underwood-Elliot-Fisher Typewriter Serial Numbers

Brand: Underwood Also known as Elliot FisherUnderwood (Antares)Underwood-Elliot-FisherVideo

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 07/8/17 04:56
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
Platen Diameter       Standards: 1.75" (44.45mm) Portables: 1.574" (40mm) 24
        Underwood Corp., New York, U.S.A.  

Manual Standards

No. 1 and No. 2          
1001 1897 Apr 1   2,6
1500 1897 Nov 1   2,6
2433 1898 Dec 31   2,6
5594 1899 Dec 31   2,6
7946 1900 Dec 31   2,6
10354 1900 Dec 31 No. 1 and 2 discontinued 2,6
No. 3 with 11", 12", 14", and 16" carriages          
1 1900 Feb 14   2,6
up to 900 1902       13
1500 1903 Jan 2   2,6
3500 1904       13
5200 1905       13
10000 1906 Apr 25   2,6
15000 1907 Mar 27   2,6
20000 1907 Nov 22   2,6
25000 1908 Oct 9   2,6
30000 1909 Mar 3 B/S and Bichrome began about 32000 2,6
35000 1909 Sep 6   2,6
40000 1910 Jan 1   2,6
50000 1911 Feb 1   2,6
68000 1912 Mrz 1   2,6
88000 1913 Apr 1   2,6,13
108000 1913 Dec     2,6
110000 1914 Mai 1   2,6
129000 1915 Jun 1 Key S/L began about 132000 2,6
153000 1915 Dec     2,6
155000 1916 Jul 1   2,6
186000 1917 Jan     2,6
200000 1917 May 29   2,6
220000 1918 Jan 1   2,6
250000 1919 Jan 1   2,6
284000 1920 Jan 1   2,6
312000 1920 Jul 1   2,6
338000 1921 Jan 1   2,6
355000 1921 Jul 1   2,6
390000 1922 Jan 1   2,6
415000 1923 Jan 1   2,6
420000 1923 Mar 5   2,6
430000 1923 Jul 1   2,6
450000 1923 Sep 1   2,6
455001 1923 Oct 23 Rising scale began about 455000 2,6
465000 1924 Jan 1   2,6
490000 1924 Jul 1   2,6
500000 1924 Aug 1   2,6
510000 1925 Jan 1   2,6
545000 1925 Jul 1   2,6
550000 1925 Jul 31   2,6
570000 1926 Jan 1   2,6
597000 1926 Jul 1   2,6
625000 1926 Oct 1   2,6
610000 1927 Jan 1 Model No. 3 11" put on the market in 1927 2,6
700000 1927 Oct 5   2,6
715000 1928 Jan 1   2,6
804000 1929 Jan 1   2,6
3000001 1929 Aug 1 Wide carriage Underwood run concurrently with standard carriage 2,6
3635000 1930 Jan 1 Top ribbon switch began about 3690000 2,6
3825000 1931 Jan 1   2,6
No. 3 with 18", 20" and 26" carriages          
1 1903 Sep 14   2,6
100 1904 Jun 2   2,6
1000 1905 May 1   2,6
1500 1906 Jun 6   2,6
2500 1907 Apr 26   2,6
3500 1908 Jan 21   2,6
5500 1909 Feb 26   2,6
6000 1909 May 28 B/S and Bichrome began about 6000 2,6
7300 1910 Jan 1   2,6
9800 1911 Jan 1   2,6
10000 1911 Jan 13   2,6
13200 1912 Jan 1   2,6
18750 1913 Jan 1   2,6
23300 1914 Jan 1   2,6
27500 1915 Jan 1   2,6
28000 1915 Jul 1 Key S/L began about 28000 2,6
34000 1916 Jan 1   2,6
50000 1917 Jan 1   2,6
60000 1918 Jan 1   2,6
61900 1919 Jan 1   2,6
73000 1920 Jan 1   2,6
78000 1921 Jan 1   2,6
80500 1921 Jul 1   2,6
85000 1922 Jan 1   2,6
89000 1923 Jan 1   2,6
95000 1923 Aug 8   2,6
97000 1924 Jan 1 Rising scale began about 98000 2,6
101000 1924 Jul 1   2,6
105000 1925 Jan 1   2,6
120000 1926 Jan 1   2,6
134000 1927 Jan 1   2,6
145000 1928 Jan 1   2,6
159000 1929 Jan 1   2,6
3000001 1929 Aug 1   2,6
3635000 1930 Jan 1 Top ribbon switch began about 3690000 2,6
3825000 1931 Jan 1   2,6
No. 4 and No. 5          
100 1900 Dec     2,6
1000 1901 Mar     2,6
10000 1902 Feb     2,6
22000 1903       9
50000 1904 May     2,6
100000 1906 Jan     2,6,9
150000 1907 April     2,6
200000 1908 July     2,6
247500 1909 May     2,6
290000 1910 Jan     2,6
360000 1911 Jan     2,6
450000 1912       2,6
551000 1913       2,6
655000 1914       2,6
740000 1915       2,6
830100 1916       2,6
940000 1917       2,6
1050000 1918       2,6
1160000 1919       2,6
1280000 1920 Jan     2,6
1430000 1921 Jan     2,6
1525000 1922 Jan     2,6
1650000 1923 Jan     2,6
1780000 1924 Jan     2,6
1910000 1925 Jan     2,6
2070000 1926 Jan     2,6,9
2167000 1927 Jan     9
2317000 1928 Jan     9
2455000 1929 Jan     2,6,9
3633000 1930 Jan     2,6,9
3825000 1931       2,6
3880000 1932       2,6
3885000 1933       2,6
No. 6 and later          
4011883 1931 Jun 1   2,6
4085000 1932 Jan 1   2,6,15
4130000 1933 Jan 1   2,6,15
4200000 1934 Jan 1   2,6,15
4300000 1935 Jan 1   2,6,15
4440000 1936 Jan 1   2,6,15
4610000 1937 Jan 1   2,6,15
4675000 1937 Jul 1   2,6
4747400       No. 6 ended 2,6
  1937 Oct   "M" for "Master" model started 2,6
4800000 1938 Jan 1   2,6,15
4840000 1938 Jul 1   2,6
4965000 1939 Jan 1   2,6,15
5065000 1939 Jul 1   2,6
5155000 1940 Jan 1   2,6,15
5210000 1940 Jul 1   2,6
5230828       "S" model started 2,6
5340000 1941 Jan 1   2,6,15
5400000 1941 Jul 1   2,6
5540000 1942 Jan 1   2,6
5645000 1942 Jul 1   2,6
5715000 1943 Jan 1   2,6
5775000 1945 Jul 1   2,6
5849000 1946 Jan 1   2,6,15
6000000 1946 May 1 "SS" model started 2,6
6010000 1946 Jul 1   2,6,15
6124000 1947 Jan 1   2,6
6170000 1947 Jul 1   2,6
6310000 1948 Jan 1   2,6
6415000 1948 Jul 1   2,6
6530000 1949 Jan 1   2,6
6570000 1949 Jul 1   2,6
6638000 1950 Jan 1   2,6
6720000 1950 Jul 1   2,6
6814000 1951 Jan 1   2,6
6900000 1951 Jul 1   2,6
7010000 1952 Jan 1   2,6
7150000 1952 Jul 1   2,6
7270000 1953 Jan 1   2,6
7340000 1953 Jul 1 Oct. 1953: Model SX 150, SX 50 started (7500000) 2,6,24
7420000 1954 Jan 1   2,6
7600000 1955 Jan 1   20
7800000 1956 Jan 1   20
7950000 1957 Jan 1   20
8145000 1958 Jan 1   20
8248000 1959 Jan 1   20
8377000 1960 Jan 1   20
8595000 1961 Jan 1   20
8872000 1962 Jan 1   20
9134000 1963 Jan 1   20
9357000 1964 Jan 1   20
9540000 1965 Jan 1   20
9704000 1966 Jan 1   20
9848000 1967 Jan 1   20
9967000 1968 Jan 1   20
Fanfold       Underwood Fanfold machines in "Business Equipment Topics, Volumes 29-31"  
up to 3880000 1931       15
3884000 1932       15
3896000 1933       15
4296000 1934       15
4440000 1935       15
4610000 1936       15
4800000 1937       15
4965000 1938       15
5155000 1939       15
5340000 1940       15
5562000 1941       15
5687000 1942       15

Noiseless Standards

N3600001 1929 Jul 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
  1929 Nov 14 First unit was put on market (not manufactured) 2,6
N3605806 1930 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N3831583 1931 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N3882689 1932 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N3885821 1933 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N3895848 1934 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N3896634 1934 Nov 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
3924000 1935 Jan 1   2,6
3944000 1936 Jan 1   2,6
3966000 1937 Jan 1   2,6
4800000 1938 Jan 1   2,6
4965000 1939 Jan 1   2,6
N5155000 1940 Jan 1   2,6
N5340000 1941 Jan 1   2,6
N5563000 1942 Jan 1   2,6
N5690000 1943 Jan 1   2,6
N5766000 1944       15
  1945     World War II 2,6
5902168 1946   1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
5909999 1947 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
5928384 1948 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
N5937000 1949 Jan 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood 2,6
5938000 1950     Remington sold the last 5000 units of black finish Noiseless at termination of their contract. Underwood changed a few to grey finish. 2,6,15
5940000 1951       15
5942000 1952     Underwood sold about 1000 units to the Superior Typewriter Co. On a consignment basis at $100 per unit. Thus they closed out their stock of Noiseless machines. 2,6,15

Electrics

        According to Source #22 & #24, Underwood Electrics are numbered in sequence with Standards, however, this appears to be slightly not true. Source #18 states that electrics ran in a slightly different sequence between 1947 and 1953, but there was a great deal of overlap. Sources #17 and 20 then show Electrics running the same serial number sequence as Standards after 1955, even though they are listed in separate lists.  
  1946     Underwood Electric first shown at New York Business Show in Oct. 1946. Some machines delivered in 1947. 18
up to 6199999 1947       18
6200000 1948       18
6515000 1949       18
6525000 1950       18
6680000 1951       18
7080000 1952       18
7270000 1953     New green keys started at 7275000. 18
  1954     In 1954 and beyond, Electrics ran in same serial # series as Standards. 17,18,20

Manual Portables

Portable 3-Bank Model          
up to 6300 1920       7,13,24
6301-26500 1921     Weight (in case) 9 3/4 lb. Dimensions of case: Height 5 1/2", Width 10", Length 12 1/4". 1,7,13, 24
26501 to 68000 1922       1,7,13, 24
68001-120000 1923       7,13,24
120001-160000 1924       7,13,24
160001-180000 1925       7,13,24
180001-195000 1926       7,13,24
195001-201000 1927       7,13,24
201001-207000 1928       7,13,24
207001-212500 1929     Production Ended in 1929 7,13,24, 16
           
Portable 4-Bank Model          
18000-80000 1926     "B" Model begins. Weight (in case) 13 1/2 lb. Dimensions of case: Height 5 1/2", Width 12", Length 12 1/8". 2,6,15, 17,18,23
80000-140000 1927       2,6,15, 17,18,23
140000-214000 1928       2,6,15, 17,18,23
214000-490000 1929       2,6,15, 17,18,23
490000-557000 1930     "B" Model ends @#500,000. "C" Model begins @#500,001. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
557000-570000 1931     Serial Prefix "C" Model gains Double Feed Roll @#557,201. "D" Model begins @#568,001. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
570000-635000 1932     "C" Model ends @#623,000. First "E" Model begins @#590,001 but ends @#623,000 with second "C" model. "F" Model "Universal" begins @#623,001. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
635000-716000 1933     "D" Model ends @#695,000. New "E" model begins @#662,001. "G" Model "Champion" Begins @#695,001. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
716000-799000 1934       2,6,15, 18,22,23
799000-887000 1935       2,6,15, 18,22,23
887000-1043000 1936     "F" Model "Universal" ends @#1,000,000. "G" Model "Champion" ends @#1,000,000. New "F" Model "Universal Typemaster" begins @#1,000,001 and New "G" Model "Champion Typemaster" begins @#1,000,001. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
1043000-1120000 1937       2,6,15, 18,22,23
1120000-1215000 1938       2,6,15, 18,22,23
1215000-1311000 1939     "E" Model ends @#1,234,500. 2,6,15, 18,22,23
1311000-1403000 1940       15,18,22, 23
1403000-1441000 1941       15,18,22, 23
1441000-? 1942       15,18,22,23
No Production 1943     WW2 ceased production 18,22
No Production 1944     WW2 ceased production 18,22
No Production 1945     WW2 ceased production 18,22
1550000-1660000 1946       18,22
1660000-1780000 1947       15,22
1780000-1890000 1948       15,22
1890000-2010000 1949     "J" Model Finger Flite Champion begins @#2,000,001. "K" Model "Finger Flite Universal" begins @#2,000,001. 15,22
2010000-2130000 1950       15,22
2130000-2250000 1951       15,22
2250000-2345000 1952     "L" Model "Improved Finger Flite" begins @#2,290,001. 15,22
2345000-2438000 1953       15,22
2438000-2560000 1954       15,22
2560000-2684000 1955       15,22
2684000-2838000 1956       15,22
2838000-2923000 1957       15,22
2923000-3006000 1958       15,22
3006000 and up 1959       15,22
           
Noiseless Portable          
543150 1932 Feb 1 This model was manufactured by Remington for Underwood and is similar to the Remington "Noiseless 7" model 2,6
577890 1933 Jan 1   2,6,17,22,23
603000 1934 Jan 1   22,23
693000 1935 Jan 1 From 8-Oct-1935 both Underwood Noiseless Portable and Underwood Noiseless 77 in same serial numbers 17,22,23
790136 1936 Jan 1   2,6,17,22,23
844808 1937 Jan 1   2,6,17,22,23
967000 1938 Jan 1 On 01-Feb-1938 started using prefix letters "P" and "Q", "P" for Noiseless Portable, "Q" for Noiseless Portable 77 17,22,23
1110000 1939 Jan 1   22,23
1180000 1940 Jan 1   22,23
1284000 1941 Jan 1   17,22,23
1379000 1942 Jan 1   17,22,23
1442000 1943 Jan 1   22,23
No Production 1944     WW2 ceased production 17,22
No Production 1945     WW2 ceased production 17,22
No Production 1946     WW2 ceased production 17,22
1502099 1946 May 1   2,6
1514999 1947 Jan 1   2,6
1638997 1948 Jan 1   2,6
1639000 1948 Feb 1   2,6
           
Model 18 Portable          
401120 to 412900 1960       2,6
412901 to 432000 1961       2,6
432001 to 470000 1962       2,6
470001 to 510000 1963       2,6
510001 to 582715 1964       6
582716 to 632828 1965       6
632829 and over 1966       6
           
Model 21 Portable          
00026 to 10100 1961       2,6
10101 to 18000 1962       2,6
     



Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives