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Roy-Type Typewriter Brand Notes

Roy-Type typewriter serial number age list, Roy-Type typewriter model list Roy-Type information

Roy-Type Typewriter Serial Numbers

Brand: Triumph Also known as DurabelEditaKoh-i-noorMondialePhoenixRoy-TypeTempotype

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/16/15 10:21
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Triumph Werke Nuernberg A.G., Nuernberg, Germany (Grundig Triumph) 24
Platen Diameter Standards and Electric 1.751" (44.5mm)
Portables: 1.271" (32.3mm)
24
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
           
Standard Manual          
           
"Triumph"  
up to 1000 1908-1911     Triumphwerke Nuernberg A..G. bought the Norica manufactory rights in 1896 4,9
5000 1914       7,13
6330 1915       7,13
7650 1916       7,13
9000 1917       7,13
10300 1918       7,13
11600 1919       7,13
20000 1920       7,13
22000 1921     Imrpoved model in summer 1921, papertray with a slot, to move the margin stop from the frontside 4,7
25000 1922       7,13
30000 1923       7,13
40000 1924       13
45000 1925       13
50000 1926       13
55000 1927       13
           
Telegraph Model  
up to 51600 1925       10
533000 1926       10
550000 1927       10
           
Model 10  
over 55000 1927       7,10,13
60000 1928     over 60220, DIN colour ribbon 7,10,13
75000 1929       7,10,13
100000 1930       7,13
125000 1931     Since 1931, as well known as "Adler Standard" 4,7,13
135000 1932       7,13
145000 1933       7,13
160000 1934       7,13
200000 1935     In other countries the Triumph up to Model 10 was also called "Edita", "Koh-i-noor", "Mondiale" and "Phoenix" 4,7,13
           
Model 12 (Triumph Standard)  
from 200001 1936 Jan   starting January 1936 7
up to 206000 1936       7
213000 1937       7
228000 1938     Model 12 was also called "Adler Standard". In Denmark it was sold as "Roy-Type" and "Tempotype" 4,7
231400 1939       13
238500 1939       13
249000 1940       13
256500 1941       13
262000 1942       13
267500 1943       13
272800 1944       13
273400 1945       13
275200 1946       13
277350 1947       13
279580 1948       13
           
Model 14  
up to 282150 1948       13
507500 1949       13
514100 1950       13
           
Triumph Matura and Rasanta  
515000-527000 1950       13
up to 550900 1951       13
584500 1952       13
821600 1953       13
858600 1954       13
           
Triumph Standard  
950001 to 1000000 1956       6
1000001 to 1079500 1957       6
1079501 to 1370000 1958       6
1370001 to 1389000 1959       6
1389001 to 1461000 1960       6
1461001 to 1800000 1961       6
18000001 to 2000000 and 1962       6
5000000 to 5020000 1962       6
5020001 to 5136000 1963       6
5136001 to 5150000 and 1964       6
8120001 to 8130000 1964       6
8130001 1965       6
8200001 1966       6
8360001 1967       6
8467627 1968       6
8533029 to 8555191 1969       6
9011130 1969       6
9015276 1970       6
9131011 1971       6
9188120 1972       6
9382070 1973       6
9498180 1974       30
9615619 1975       30
9812280 1976       30
9933400 1977       30
30000650 1977     New Series 30
           
Electric          
           
Electric Matura "L"  
1300001 to 1301739 1957       6
1301740 to 1305442 1958       6
1305443 to 1309056 1959       6
1309057 to 1312680 1960       6
1312681 to 1315000 1961       6
1340001 to 1340919 1961       6
7200044 to 7200979 1961       6
7200980 to 7204533 1962       6
7204534 to 7207847 1963       6
7207848 to 7209172 1964       6
           
Electric Matura "S"  
1315001 to 1316901 1958       6
1316902 to 1320647 1959       6
1320648 to 1324047 1960       6
1324048 to 1326700 1961       6
1350001 to 1350951 1961       6
1350952 to 1351000 1962       6
7210000 to 7211895 1962       6
7211896 to 7213295 1963       6
7213296 to 7213856 1964       6
           
Electric 20  
1725001 to 1726930 1961       6
7000000 1961       6
7002687 to 7006079 1962       6
           
Electric 31  
7010000 to 7012505 1962       6
7012506 to 7019999 1963       6
7040000 to 7040379 1963       6
7040380 to 7041999 1964       6
           
Electric 51  
7030000 to 7030804 1963       6
7030805 to 7031999 1964       6
           
Electric 31/51, 31C/51C, 31D/51D, 31F/51F  
7301000 to 7344174 1964       6
7344175 1965       6
7374401 1966       6
7465001 1967       6
7520009 1968       6
7620816 1969       6
7742439 1970       6
7770721 1971       6
7800000 1972       6
3108415 1972     New series 6
3298755 1973       6
3412810 1974       30
3561325-3708157 1975       30
3700686 1976     (series went back?) 30
           
13IF & 131D  
3722160 1977       30
           
Portables          
           
Triumph Portable  
from 75001 1929     As well known as Adler Modell 31, 32 and 32 S, in Sweden "Seriva" 7,13
up to 80000 1930       7,13
85000 1931       7,13
90000 1932       7,13
120000 1933       7,13
135000 1934       4,7,13
150000 1935     "Triumph Durabel", simplified and cheaper, "Triumph Perfekt", with column setting and "Triumph Norm", without tabulator 7,13
165000 1936       7,13
175000 1937       7,13
180500 1938       7,13
309000 1939       13
408200 1940       13
419000 1941       13
426000 1942       13
433200 1943       13
452000 1944       13
455100 1945       13
456600 1946       13
458800 1947       13
462000 1948       13
492800 1949       13
497200 1950       13
655752 1951       13
702890 1952       13
709580 1953       13
715240 1954       13
           
Triumph-Perfekt, Norm & Gabriele  
631300-644100
688800-700000
715240-720700
1100001-1101300
1955       24
644101-645000
720701-727400
1101301-1116600
1200001-1214800
1956       24
727401-746500
1116601-1130100
1214801-1235100
1957       24
746501-783200
1130101-1144600
1235101-1255500
1958       24
783201-800000
1144601-1149400
1255501-1267100
1675001-1677600
1959       24
1149401-1155500
1267101-1280100
1677601-1700900
1960       24
           
Persona l/ Tippa I/Tippa S  
4204000 to 4272000 1961       1
4272001 to 4300000 1962       1
4300001 to 4369000 1963       1
4369001 to 4500000 1964       1
4500001 1965       6
4574001 1966       6
4670001 1967       6
4829657 1968       6
4910896 1969       6
5076921 1970       6
5092225 1971       6
5192150 1972       6
5480590 1973       6
5689123 1974       30
5723295 1975       30
5783743 1976       30
5920828 1977       30
           
Perfect  
1282000 to 1300000 and 1961       6
2000000 to 2050000 1961       6
3045000 to 3050000 1962       6
           
Gabriele "E"  
1516000 to 1600000 1961       6
3020000 to 3025000 1962       6
3230001 to 3240000 1963       6
3270001 to 3280000 1964       6
3420001 to 3430000 1964       6
3440001 to 3480000 1964       6
3510001 to 3540000 1965       6
           
Gabriele "3"  
3221000 to 3223000 1962       6
3227001 to 3230000 1963       6
3251001 to 3253000 1963       6
3253001 to 3260000 1964       6
3400001 to 3420000 1964       6
3446001 to 3447000 1965       6
           
Gabriele 20 and 30  
3637001 1965       6
3701001 1966       6
3863601 1967       6
4021731 to 4054709 1968       6
           
Gabriele 25/35  
4093591 1968       6
4174955 1969       6
4347504 1970       6
4583925 1971       6
4659040 1972       6
4986135 to 4998781 1973       6
15015260 1974     New Series 30
15080500 1975       30
15454462 1976       30
15673670 1977       30
           
Contessa  
3004760 1971       6
3051500 1972       6
3075587 to 3076174 1973       6
5664725 1974     New Series 30
5721025 1975       30
10102400 1976     New Series 30
10325388 1977       30
           
Gabriele 5000 Electric  
6008680 1970       6
6023235 1971       6
6345580 1972       6
6419445 1973       6
6486166 1974       30
6544545 1975       30
6545120 1976       30
6546150 1977       30
           
2000 Electric  
20009765 1973       30
20055335 1974       30
20075005 1975       30
20125285 1976       30
20186055 1977       30
           
MX Electric  
6461540 1973       30
6485650 1974       30
6494947 1975       30
6668880 1976       30
6711210 1977       30
           



Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html, http://odtype.blogspot.com/2017/02/moskva-5-6-and-7-age-lists.html
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-swedish-densmore-typewriter.html
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
See: https://writelephant.com/2017/06/17/all-or-nakajima
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
See: http://www.typewritercollector.com/images/underwoodagelist.pdf
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
See: https://www.perrier-sa.ch/musee/boutique/
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/01/korean-typewriters.html