The Typewriter Database

To find out when your typewriter was made, start by choosing the brand from the select box below.

Select Brand:

Green Serial #'s • Black notes, no #'s • Grey no info.

LOG IN  |  FORGOT PASSWORD?  |  REGISTER TODAY

Hungaria Typewriter Serial Numbers

Brand: Olympia Also known as AEG (Olympia)Commando (Olympia)DiplomatDMErfurtFortuna (Olympia)HungariaLuteceOrbisOrietteOrionRexpelThe SocietyTraditionTypo (Olympia)

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 01/31/17 07:35
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

Olympia          
Platen Diameter       Model Progress, Simplex, Elite, Filia, Plana, Orbis, Robust, SM1, SM2, SM3, SM4, Splendid 33,66,99, Monica: 1.271" (32.3mm)
Model 7, 8, 8a, 8b, 9, SG1, SGE01, SG1/N, SG1/S, SGE20, SGE30,SGE10: 1.751" (44.5mm)
24
        Europa Schreibmaschinen AG, Erfurt, Germany  
        Since 1936: Olympia Bueromaschinenwerke, Erfurt, Germany  
        Since 1948: Olympia Werke, Wilhelmshaven, Germany  
           
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
Standard Manual          
           
Model 3       Before Model 3, see AEG/Mignon  
11-1300 1914-1920       25
1301-4900 1921       25
4901-15000 1922       25
15001-26200 1923       25
26201-31200 1924       25
31201-40072 1925     Production ends Model 3, and begins Model 6 25
           
Model 6          
50001-52200 1925       25
52201-61000 1926       25
61001-82500 1927       25
82501-104000 1928       25
104001-113437 1929     Production ends Model 6, begins Model 7 25
           
Model 7          
150000-170300 1930       7,9,13,25
170301-181000 1931       7,9,13,25
181001-183490 1932       7,9,13,25
183491-188778 1933       25
188779-189498 1934     Production ends Model 7, begins Model 8 25
           
Model 8          
200000-211378 1934       7,9,13,25
211379-230350 1935       7,9,13,25
230351-248160 1936     Model 8a and 8b, simplified and cheaper 7,9,13,25
248161-275007 1937       7,9,13,25
275008-305384 1938       7,9,13,25
305385-339408 1939       7,9,13,25
339409-366103 1940       7,9,13,25
366104-388172 1941       7,13,25
400001-415902 1942       25
450001-462623 1943       25
750001-755960 1944       25
775000-778690 1945       25
778691-792053 1946       25
792054-809894 1947       25
809895-837656 1948     After 1948 Olympia factory becomes East German Optima, see OPTIMA for further serial number data. 25
           

The Olympia SG1 Typewriter Repair Bible
Service Repair Adjustment, Parts and Maintenance Manual

  • Olympia SG-1 User Manual and Salesman's Training Guide
  • Complete 1955 Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manual Covering:
    Standard Manual Typewriter: Olympia SG-1
  • Complete 1962 Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering:
    Standard Manual Typewriter: Olympia SG-1
  • Reference Catalog: Olympia Typewriter Typefaces and Keyboards
  • Illustrated Olympia SG Model Age Guide
           
S.G. Model          
1001 1953     Model SG-1 Begins. 6,30
3100 1954       6,30
27000 1955       6,30
87947 1956       6,30
176711 1957       6,30
287313 1958       6,30
389968 1959       6,30
511739 1960       6,30
646532 1961       6,30
798651 1962       6,30
927137 1963     Model SG-3 begins. 6,30
1069815 1964       6,30
1246987 1965       6,30
1452468 1966       6,30
1661124 1967       6,30
1846377 1968       6,30
2050319 1969       6,30
2264262 1970       6,30
2481282 1971       6,30
2703982 1972       6,30
2856661 1973       30
2990435 1974       30
3092513 1975       30
3277010 1976       30
3465924 1977       30
4099345 1978       30
4506092 1979       30
5100000 1980     Approximation.  
5650000 1981     Approximation.  
6200000 1982     Approximation.  
6700000 1983     Approximation.  
7100000 1984     Approximation.  
           
SKM (Compact Standard)          
11601 1973       30
40464 1974       30
74370 1975       30
98836 1976       30
120493 1977       30
198362 1978       30
237683 1979       30
           
Electric          
           
S.G.E. 20/30          
1001 1958       6,30
1053 1959       6,30
2142 1960       6,30
6713 1961       6,30
20177 1962       6,30
24729 to 26047 1963       6,30
           
S.G.E.30 and 30/35          
up to 11979 1967       6,30
11980 1968       6,30
30143 1969       6,30
67352 1970       6,30
105240 1971       6,30
127650 1972       6,30
147945 1973       30
176860 1974       30
207785 1975       30
           
S.G.E. 10/40          
1001 1959       6,30
1063 1960       6,30
3440 1961       6,30
7250 to 13499 1962       6,30
           
S.G.E. 40/50          
13500 1963       6,30
35486 1964       6,30
77694 1965       6,30
122905 1966       6,30
122221 1967       6,30
243302 1968       6,30
327019 1969       6,30
398540 1970       6,30
531711 1971       6,30
636083 1972       30
739510 1973       30
899236 1974       30
1001842 1975       30
1030426 1976       30
1056110 1977       30
1428604 1978       30
1582260 1979       30
           
S.G.E. 45 (Electric Compact)          
9893 1975       30
14262 1976       30
37002 1977       30
204313 1978       30
316083 1979       30
           
S.G.E. 50 M Excellence          
up to 398540 1970     proportional spacing 6,30
531711 1971       6,30
636083 1972       30
739510 1973       30
899236 1974       30
1001842 1975       30
1022541 1976       30
1041114 1977       30
1396211 1978       30
1578936 1979       30
           
S.G.E. 60/65          
12898 1976       30
29050 1977       30
160306 1978       30
247213 1979       30
           
S.G.E. 77          
04088 1978       30
19842 1979       30
           
Report (Electric)          
8771 1973       30
40815 1974       30
70482 1975       30
92717 1976       30
143870 1977       30
216623 1978       30
287806 1979       30
           
SKM (Electric Compact)          
11601 1971       6,30
40464 1972       6,30
           
Portables          
           
Kappel Models          
        Klein-Kappel, Kappel V.A., Kappel Knirps and Fips were built by Olympia 4
           
Olympia          
under 100 1930     started 1930, named only Olympia at the beginning 7,4
           
Model Progress, Simplex, Robust and Elite        
101-3000 1931       13,25
3001-18400 1932       13,25
18401-33221 1933     Simplex and Elite models introduced end of 1933 7,9,10,25
33222-55649 1934       7,9,25
55650-85913 1935       7,9,25
85914-126542 1936       7,9,25
126543-171114 1937       7,9,25
171115-235546 1938     Note: 1938 is missing from #25, but can be inferred from 1937 to 1939 data 7,9,25
235547-291882 1939       7,9,25
291883-321915 1940       7,9,25
321916-350349 1941       7,25
400001-424178 1942       25
450001-472524 1943       25
500001-521321 1944       25
525000-531737 1945       25
531738-547582 1946       25
547583-571871 1947       25
571872-600955 1948     After 1948 Olympia factory becomes East German Optima, see OPTIMA for further serial number data. 25
           
Filia Model          
100-4836 1934       7,9,13,25
4837-43398 1935       7,9,13,25
43399-56498 1936       7,9,13,25
56499-79326 1937       7,9,13,25
79327-92857 1938       7,9,13,25
92858-106427 1939       7,9,13,25
106428-109123 1940     Production ended 7,13,25
           
Plana Model          
101-5371 1939       13,25
5372-17715 1940       7,9,13,25
17716-27300 1941       7,9,13,25
50000-57521 1942       13,25
100000-107459 1943       25
150000-156424 1944       25
175000-178189 1945       25
178190-185313 1946       25
185314-191376 1947       25
191377-198118 1948     After 1948 Olympia factory becomes East German Optima, see OPTIMA for further serial number data. 25
           
Super Model          
To 94000 1936       6,30
94001 1937       6,30
140001 1938       6,30
150001 to 240000 1939       6,30
           
Orbis Model          
001-12300 1949     produced in Wilhelmshaven in West-Germany 6,13,30
           
SM 1 Portable          
12300-30000 1949 Model SM-1 begins: The keys are black and circular, except for the function keys which are dark green and have a tombstone shape. Colors offered include black, green, dark red, and cream.
6,13,30, 121
30001-80000 1950   6,30
80001 to 135086 1951   30
           

The Olympia SM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 Typewriter Repair Bible
Service Repair Adjustment, Parts and Maintenance Manual

  • Olympia SM-7 User Manual and Olympia SM-3 User Manual
  • Complete 1955 Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manual Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriter: Olympia SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, SM-7
  • Complete 1962 Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriter: Olympia SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, SM-7
  • Olympia/ITC Technical Service Bulletins
  • Reference Catalog: Olympia Typewriter Typefaces and Keyboards
  • Illustrated Olympia SM Model Age Guide
           
SM 2,3,4,5,7,8,9 Portable
69390-99000 1950 Model SM-2 begins: new keytops and new styling, although the machine inside is largely the same as the SM1 at this time. The keytops are usually black, though sometimes with dark green function keys. Crinkle finish colors include olive green, black, and dark red.
30,24,121
99001-206000 1951 After serial number 170000, the keytops, now with cushioning, are flipped 180 degrees to resemble the more common 1950s Olympia keys, though the function keys remain the same, and body pieces changed slightly although the styling remained the same. The Olympia logo is now moved to the ribbon cover. The SM2 still has no tabulator and the margin sets are hidden behind the paper table. There is a new return lever.
30,121
206001-304000 1952   30
304001-430000 1953 Model SM-3 begins: SM3 has a tabulator with manual stops. The margin sets are moved to the top of the carriage with the tab stops under on the back. It usually has De Luxe written on the segment.
The first version of the SM3 was produced only for a short time in 1953 and possibly early 1954. It has the smaller shift key of the 1952 SM2 and slightly different plastic card holders angled to fit around the wire card holder.
30,121
430001-590000 1954 Again, somewhere around serial number 500000 in 1954, another change, though slight. The shift keys become larger. SM3 gets different plastic card holders
30,121
590001-744180 1955   30
744181-924300 1956   6,30
924301-1109075 1957   6,30
1109076-1333915 1958 Model SM-4 begins: This was an improved version of the SM3 with a keyset tabulator.
These were produced in a number of colors until 1961, ending when the SM3 ended. Most have a squared-off case with grey and white stripes, although some have the silver streamlined case.
6,30,121
1333916-1524842 1959   6,30
1524843-1731684 1960 Model Monica begins: a stripped-down model that began in 1960 and continued until the end of Olympia production in Germany, spanning a number of body styles. The first Monica was similar to the SM2, but without a chrome stripe around the base of the machine, with different, simpler rubber feet, and less liberal use of chrome finishing. The eraser table is also lacking.
All Monicas have an eggshell or textured glossy finish in an off-white color.
6,30,121
1731685-1949309 1961   6,30
1949310-2194888 1962 Model SM-7 begins: much the same as the SM4 inside, having a keyset tabulator, but with a modernized angular body. It was produced in 3 colors; white, pink, and blue. Some have a "Made in Western Germany" badge below the Olympia logo but most don't.
The SM7s with pink or blue bodies as a rule have all-white keys and knobs, while the white-painted ones have turquoise shift keys and knobs. They all have a squared-off case with grey and white stripes.
Model SM-5 begins: Introduced at the same time as the SM7, the SM5 was a less-expensive option. It's like a cross between an SM2 and an SM3, having the SM2 style paper table, but with a manual-set tabulator. It was produced in just one variation.
6,30,121
2194889-2414048 1963   6,30
2414049-2636380 1964 Models SM-8 and SM-9 begin: introduced in 1964 with an all-new segment shift design and a new body. The keys were off-white with turquoise accents. The logo was originally turquoise as well.
The SM8 is an SM9 without the keyset tabulator and touch selector. It also has body-colored carriage ends, rather than chromed as with the SM9.
6,30,122
2636381-2918568 1965   6,30
2918569-3222680 1966   6,30
3222681-3433391 1967   6,30
3433392-3630903 1968     In 1968, the color of the entire keyboard was changed to charcoal grey, as well as the carriage knob ends. The carriage return lever now is able to fold down to fit the new smaller black plastic case. 6,30,122
3630904-3941129 1969 In 1969, a similar but completely new body shell was introduced along with moving the tab set keys from the sides of the spacebar to the left of the keyboard. The white paint was also brightened. The touch selector was moved from there to under the ribbon cover. This marks the introduction of the new all-caps Olympia logo.
6,30,122
3941130-4185448 1970   6,30
4185449-4439080 1971   6,30
4439081-4557709 1972   6,30
4557710-4632656 1973       30
4632657-4829512 1974       30
4829513-4923551 1975       30
4923552-5100786 1976       30
5100787-5436365 1977     By 1977, the knobs had been changed to be completely black. This is the final version of the SM9 produced, and is said to be of lower quality than the previous models. It was produced until 1979.
30,122
5436366-5960742 1978       30
5960743-6500743 1979       30
           
SF Portable & Traveller          
1001 1956       6,30
4863 1957       6,30
41257 1958       6,30
155044 1959       6,30
259318 1960       6,30
372070 1961       6,30
483449 1962       6,30
636791 1963       6,30
812771 1964       6,30
982663 1965       6,30
1152267 1966       6,30
1345771 1967       6,30
1542790 1968       6,30
1708450 1969       6,30
1998913 1970       6,30
2197504 1971     in 1971 "Traveller" model production moved to Sarajevo, Yugoslavia (see: UNIS) 6,30
2700111 1972       6,30
2869478 1973       30
2978210 1974       30
3104725 1975       30
3135812 1976       30
3315027 1977       30
4276836 1978       30
4346502 1979       30
           
Olympiette          
10938 1973       30
19967 1974       30
27561 1975       30
35773 1976       30
271297 1977       30
471936 1978       30
582206 1979       30



The Manual Typewriter Repair Bible

462 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Basic Mechanical Theory and Indoctrination on how mid-20th Century manual typewriters work.
  • Step-By-Step Typewriter Symptom Troubleshooting Guide.
  • Complete 1946 OAMI Service and Adjustment Manual Covering: Standard Manual Typewriters: Remington * Royal * Underwood * Woodstock * L.C. Smith, Portable Manual Typewriters: Remington * Royal * Corona * Underwood.
  • Typewriter Tools, Ribbon Spools, Ribbons, Platens, Springs and Ball Bearings Reference.
  • Typewriter Typeface and Keyboard Reference.

The Smith-Corona Floating Shift Typewriter Repair Bible

334 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Smith-Corona "Floating Shift" User Manuals
  • Complete 1947 and 1951 Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manuals Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriters: Smith-Corona Squareline (Flat-top), Speedline and Super-5 Series – Standard, Clipper, Sterling, Silent and Silent-Super
  • Complete 1955 Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriters: Smith-Corona Squareline (Flat-top), Speedline and Super-5 Series – Standard, Clipper, Sterling, Silent and Silent-Super
  • Reference Catalog: Smith-Corona Typewriter Typefaces and Keyboards
  • Illustrated Smith-Corona "Floating Shift" Model Age Guide

The Olympia SM 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 7 Typewriter Repair Bible

206 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Olympia SM-7 User Manual and Olympia SM-3 User Manual
  • Complete 1955 Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manual Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriter: Olympia SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, SM-7
  • Complete 1962 Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering:
    Portable Manual Typewriter: Olympia SM-1, SM-2, SM-3, SM-4, SM-5, SM-7
  • Olympia/ITC Technical Service Bulletins
  • Reference Catalog: Olympia Typewriter Typefaces and Keyboards
  • Illustrated Olympia SM Model Age Guide

The Olympia SG1 Typewriter Repair Bible

256 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Olympia SG-1 User Manual and Salesman's Training Guide
  • Complete 1955 Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manual Covering:
    Standard Manual Typewriter: Olympia SG-1
  • Complete 1962 Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering:
    Standard Manual Typewriter: Olympia SG-1
  • Reference Catalog: Olympia Typewriter Typefaces and Keyboards
  • Illustrated Olympia SG Model Age Guide

The Brother JP-1 Typewriter Repair Bible

94 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Brother JP-1 User Manuals
  • Complete 1975 Brother Service, Troubleshooting and Adjustment Manual Covering Portable Typewriter:
    Brother M100, Charger 11, 200, 210, 220, 240T, 250TR, 300, 300T, 350TR, 800, 800T, 850TR, 900, 1300, 1350, Performer 333RS
  • Complete 1975 Brother Tools and Exploded Parts Reference Manual Covering Portable Typewriter:
    Brother M100, Charger 11, 200, 210, 220, 240T, 250TR, 300, 300T, 350TR, 800, 800T, 850TR, 900, 1300, 1350, Performer 333RS
  • Illustrated Brother JP-1 Model Age Guide

The 1940 AMES American Typewriter Parts Catalog

456 Pages, Professionally printed and coil bound - lays flat on your work table!
  • Richly Illustrated Parts Reference Catalog Covering Pre-1941 American Typewriter Models:
  • Remington - Noiseless 10, Noiseless 11, Noiseless Portable, No. 7, No. 12, No. 16, No. 17 and Portable
  • Royal - Standard and Portable
  • Corona - 3, 4, Zephyr and Floating Shift Models
  • L. C. Smith - Model 8, Ribbon Indicator, Super Speed and Silent
  • Underwood - Noiseless, Noiseless Portable, Master, Standard and Portable B, C, D, E, F and G
  • Woodstock - 5F, 5N, 8J, 8K, 8L and Standard
  • Bonus: Includes “High Mortality Parts” Tables from 1946 AMES Catalog!

Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:


Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

   
No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website : http://www.oocities.org/heartland/cottage/5405/serial.htm, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
see: http://home.earthlink.net/~dcrehr/book/book.html
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
see: http://www.aquaporin4.com/etcetera/ETC.04.pdf
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see : http://www.hometown.aol.com/page3.html
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/09/07/in-preparation-for-an-updated-typewriter-serial-number-database-royal-portables/
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
see: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/theportabletypewriterforum/message/31895
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2011/04/22/national-office-machine-dealer-association-1972-typewriter-age-guide/
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
see: http://typewriters.ch/collection/VOSS.html
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
see: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/typewriter-serial-numbers.html
and: http://offountainpenstypewriters.blogspot.com/2012/02/moretypewriter-serial-numbers.html
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
see: http://munk.org/typecast/2013/01/05/shipman-ward-dealers-line-book-1954%E2%80%93part-2-age-lists/
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
see: http://type-writer.org/?p=2850
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
See: http://www.typewriterstory.com/index.php/ol-graphica
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
See: http://pds.lib.harvard.edu/pds/view/2574435
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
See: http://simson.net/ref/Xerox/
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-datecodes-1.jpg
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/wp-content/uploads/2014/05/brother-warranty-3.jpg
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
See: http://munk.org/typecast/2014/05/06/a-brotherly-bonanza/
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
See: http://download.brother.com/pub/com/en/corporate/pdf/2014/broa4_3334_en.pdf
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
See: http://web.archive.org/web/20090830084402/http:/geocities.com/wbd641/Victor.html
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
See: http://www.sljohnson.net/typewriter/corona.html
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
See: http://www.portabletypewriters.co.uk/portable_typewriters_standard_folding.htm
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC004.pdf?page=4
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/OLIVER_SIM_MAS.html
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=3598
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/collection/hermes_baby.html
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/ADBM1924.pdf
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
See: https://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/exhibits/modelb/modelb_intro.html
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
See: http://site.xavier.edu/polt/typewriters/rem-portables.htm
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler.
See: https://goo.gl/I5X12b, https://goo.gl/z0tSOq, https://goo.gl/4iq9Tz
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
See: https://wordsarewinged.blogspot.com/2016/06/dont-mind-my-insanity-updated-fox.html
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
See: http://badonoer.blogspot.com/2016/01/a-very-good-year-for-adler-favorit-2s.html
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2016/01/fbi-forgery-by-typewriter-re-examining.html
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.co.uk/2012/02/littlest-typewriters-bennetts.html
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
See: http://www.typewriters.ch/blog/2016/06/sabb-schreibmaschine/
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/07/the-emerson-enigma-of-typewriters.html
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/05/the-victor-standard-typewriter.html
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2012/11/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_6.html
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC001.pdf
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2011/09/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history-cvi.html
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
See: http://www.garbell.com/GarbellTypewriter.html
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/#!garbell-typewriter/us0eg
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-visible-typewriters-overview.html
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/08/fox-portable-typewriters-and-demise-of.html
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC082.pdf
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/01/on-this-day-in-typewriter-history_9569.html
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
See: http://type-writer.org/?p=4230
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2014/07/the-american-pocket-typewriter-and.html
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
See: http://etconline.org/backissues/ETC081.pdf
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2016/09/merritt.html
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/09/yatran-heaviest.html
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
See: http://odtype.blogspot.com/2016/10/moskva-3-and-4-age-lists-as-of-ix2016.html
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
See: http://davistypewriters.blogspot.com/2015/02/portable-typewriters-today-february-2015.html
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
See: http://oztypewriter.blogspot.com/2013/10/the-amazing-maspro-portable-typewriter.html
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
See: http://www.antikeychop.com/masspro-typewriter
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/02/olympia-sm-series-part-1-1948-1964.html
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
See: http://xoverit.blogspot.com/2015/04/olympia-sm-series-part-2-1964-1980s.html
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".