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Molle Typewriter Brand Notes

Molle typewriter serial number age list, Molle typewriter model list Molle information

Molle Typewriter Serial Numbers

Also known as Liberty

Serial Number Table Last Edited: 08/8/16 04:11
NOTE: dates shown are JAN 1 unless noted, so the serial number shown is the *first* serial number produced the given year. Exceptions are serial numbers preceded by "up to"(where you can assume that the numbers reported in that subsection are DECEMBER 31, END OF YEAR NUMBERS) or rows where a month is given in the month column. If the serial number is shown as a range (xxxx-xxxx) it indicates that we know the entire range of serial numbers for the given year.

  1903-1906 Patents:
Filed Apr 1, 1903 • Issued Nov 24, 1903
Filed Dec 28, 1904 • Issued Feb 27, 1906
Filed Feb 10, 1913 • Issued Dec 16, 1913
Filed Dec 12, 1911 • Issued Dec 23, 1913
Filed Feb 10, 1913 • Issued Jan 20, 1914
John E. Molle, a jeweler and watchmaker in Sturgeon Bay, Wisconsin, U.S.A. filed his first design in patent 1903, and struggled to finance manufacure until finally successfully bringing his machine to the market in 1918. By then his design, though interesting, was dated and too unusual to succeed greatly in a marketplace now dominated by smaller, lighter portables and 4-bank machines of conventional design, and the venture failed in 1922.
"Molle" is pronounced as "Mollie".
  • On the earliest machines, the words "OSHKOSH, WISCONSON" are printed on the base of the machine below the company's name. "Molle" is printed on the paper table. Very, very early machines have nickle-plated sides.
  • Subsequently, the words "OSHKOSH, WIS., U.S. of A." are printed on the base of the machine. Also, an emblem appears on the paper table adjacent "Molle". The emblem displays a "T" superimposed upon an "M," creating the "MT" logo which presumably stands for "Molle Typewriter." These machines are rare.
  • After a brief run the emblem disappears. The words "OSHKOSH, WIS., U.S. of A." remain.
  • The Liberty maintains a similar design, but featuring the words "CHICAGO, ILLINOIS, U.S. of A" on the base and "Liberty" on the paper table. Same paint scheme and lettering style. Also marked No. 3.
Platen Diameter       unknown  
Models and s/n Y M D Remarks Ref.
  1907     May, 1907: Molle Typewriter Co., of Antigo, Wisconsin, USA, is incorporated with 11 shareholders for $25,000.
No. 1 1908     Molle's first design was meant to become the "Jundt", built by Alfred Jundt in Dayton, Ohio, USA, but the design appears to have never made it to production. 5,16,85
  1911 12   Jan 1912: Molle Typewriter Co. is incorporated again with capital stock of $100,000 by John E. Molle, Frank H. Pardoe and Robert Schmidt. 103
No. 2 1914 6   A second design by Molle in 1914 (name unknown) does not come to fruition. 5,16
  1915 01   Molle Typewriter Co. factory is completed in 1915 on 53 Ceape Avenue, Oshkosh, Wisconsin, USA. 103
No. 3
1918 Standard 3 bank with unique type linkage: when a key is pressed, it moves a tiny crank which rotates a rod underneath. At the other end of the rod is a similar crank which pulls down the type bar link, causing the type bar to pivot up to the platen.
Sold for $50. Weight: 11 3/4 lbs. Platen length: 8.75", 30 keys, 90 characters, double shift. Aluminum frame, pressed steel parts.
Machine is built in 3 sections that can be easily removed without tools: base, action and carriage. Carriage and shift mechanism on ball bearings.
Most examples are painted black with gold pinstriping, but a rare variation is a white-painted model. Also rare "MT" logo labelled machines are known in the 2000 serial range.
April 27, 1918: John E. Molle dies at age 46, and Molle Typewriter is restructured with Molle's widow and brother in control. They appoint Robert D. Wynn to run the company.
June 1918: Molle announces government orders and factory improvements.
Series likely begins at #1000.
1751-3750 1919     Molle Typewriter Co. goes public and begins selling shares. In April 19, 1919 Union Securities Co. offers Molle stock at $2/share, approved by R. D. Wynn, General Manager.
May 1919: Molle advertises seeking agents in England, Ireland, Scotland and Wales. English General Sales Manager is Carling, Hadley & Co., 2 Pall Mall, Manchester, England.
July 1919: New Molle product catalog is released with sectional drawings of the Molle, factory photos and the history of the Molle Typewriter Co. (I want to find a copy of this)
Molle is offered in France by agent M. Paul Ledreux, 59 Rue St. Lazare, Paris, France.
Sept. 1919: Molle No. 3 is now offered with from 1 to 5 "dead keys" for foreign languages.
Oct 1919: Molle exhibits at the New York Business Show.
Nov 17, 1919: Molle exhibits at the Chicago Business Show.
Dec 1919: Molle factory and R. D. Wynn entertain its British representatives in Wisconsin.
2000 units sold in 1919.
3751-4950 1920     Aug 1920: W. P. Boyd, Ltd. Typewriter and Office Equipment Exchange, 6-7 South Parade, Leeds, England is appointed sole distributor for Molle in Yorkshire.
Sept 1920: General Manager R. D. Wynn authorized to increase Molle's capital stock from $500,000 to $5 million. Par value of stock is raised from $1 to $10.
Dec 18, 1920: Manufacturing section of Molle plant has been shut down for as long as 30 months, but machines are still being assembled and shipped by a staff of 22. 1,200 machines have been assembled and awaiting "better foreign exchange rates" for shipment.
[Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, December 18, 1920]
4951-7950 1921     Feb 22, 1921: R. D. Wynn appeals to stockholders and citizens of Oshkosh to buy a new Molle typewriter at $50 and loan the company a further $50 for 60 days @6% interest. Molle now has 1,100 machines assembled and awaiting shipment, of which 350 have American keyboards. The remaining 750 have foreign keyboards and are still awaiting shipment to fill export orders.
Wynn states that if fully invested, Molle can produce a further 1,000 American keyboard machines from existing parts. Wynn states that the Monday previous, the stockholders had voted to reorganize again, with the new company stock exchanged 2 to 1 for old stock. Stock capital is now $2,500,000. Wynn assures investors the comany will be back on its feet in 2 months.
[Oshkosh Daily Northwestern, February 22, 1921]
7951 and above 1922     May 1 1922: Molle Typewriter Sales Co., Ltd., Oshkosh, Wi. is formed to handle the exclusive sales in the USA of the Molle typewriter. Molle Typewriter Corporation is the parent company and A. J. Alsdorf Corporation of Chicago continuing as export managers for all foreign sales.
July 3, 1922: Molle Typewriter Corporation is adjucated bankrupt by the United States Court for Eastern District of Wisconsin. Charles H. Forward is appointed Referee in Bankruptcy. Indications are that Molle will attempt to reorganize under the leadership of R. D. Wynn, the former general manager.
Company liabilities are $131,716, nominal asset value is $262,028 with machinery valued at $168,440 and merchandise worth $78,690.
[note that $78,690 is the value of around 1,574 Molles at retail price. It could be that these thousand or so Molles got auctioned off in lots, leaving several companies with batches of Molles to sell, perhaps with the largest lot going to Liberty in Chicago.]
It is believed that about 7000 units were produced in total.
Liberty No. 3 1923 Liberty Typewriter Company of Chicago, Ill., USA markets remaining Molle No. 3's as Liberty.
It is currently unknown if Liberty series continues the Molle serial numbers past 8000.

Molle Typewriter: Links to History

Typewriter Repair and Service Manuals in PDF Format for immediate download:

Reference numbers

* Indicates source data the current list maintainer has access to. Usually it means we have a copy of the document in question, but it might be in the form of a later edition list. However, for the purposes of validation we have been able to confirm the source.

No. Literature
1 * Century of the Typewriter, Wilfred A. Beeching, publ. by the British Typewriter Museum, 1974, 1990, ISBN 0951679007
2 * Joan Sales,"Date your Underwood Typewriter" - Website :, reference to Richard Polt
(note: The source for this article was at least partially Ref. #18)
3 Allowance Sheet 1918, made available by Andrew B. Schrader
4 Ernst Martin, Die Schreibmaschine und ihre Entwicklungsgeschichte(The Typewriter and the history of it's developement), publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag and Basten International, 1920 to 1949 and reprints
5 * Darryl Rehr, Antique typewriters, by Schroeder publishing, Los Angeles, 1997, ISBN 0891457577
6 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Bruce Beard, Australia
(note: this reference same as #28)
7 * "Liste der Herstellungsdaten gangbarer Schreibmaschinen" Listing of the production dates of commen typewriters), publ. by Wochenschrift für Papier, Otto Hoffmann Verlag, 1941, Berlin, copies contributed by Mr. Paul Roberts, Netherlands. Current copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
8 * Richard Polt, adapted from the book of Paul Lippman, American Typewriters: A Collector's Encyclopedia (1992) and corrected, based on a list publ. in ETCetera #4
9 "Fabriknummernverzeichnis" (Factory number Listing), booklet which could be purchased optionally with book reference No. 4, edition 1941, publ. by Johannes Meyer Verlag, Pappenheim 1941
10 "Fabrikationsdaten von Schreibmaschinen", listing of typewriter serial numbers for dealer's, 1942 and 1935, publ. by Carl Teege Verlag, Hamburg
11 Ames Supply General Catalog from 1949
12 Information contributed by Will Davis, see :
13 Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslaendischer Schreibmaschinen, 10 Auflage, 1955, publ. by Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg (small book, pre-owned by the Adler Werke vorm. Heinrich Kleyer, Frankfurt)
14 Leonhard Dingwerth, Kleines Lexikon Historischer Schreibmaschinen (Small Lexicon of Historical Typewriters), publ. by Kunstgrafik Dingwerth, Eichendorffstr. 77, D-33415 Verl
15 * Office Typewriter Age List No. 26, publ. by Smith-Corona, by courtesy of Mr. Ron Fuller, Los Angeles, USA
(note: this reference same as #22)
16 * American Typewriters - A Collector's Encyclopedia by Paul Lippman, 1992, Hoboken
17 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1964, provided by Bill Wahl
18 * Remington Information Binder (The Sheridan Binder), 1950's to 1970's, provided by Richard Polt.
19 * Interview with P. Birchmeier, Aug. 2012, reported by Georg Sommeregger.
20 * National Office Machine Dealers Assoc. "Blue Book" (NOMDA), 1980, provided by Bill Wahl.
21 * VOSS Schreibmaschinen, 2012, published by Georg Sommeregger. (HFW Schramm 11th ed. 1962)
22 * Smith-Corona Age List #26, 1960, provided by Bill M.
23 * Shipman-Ward Office Machine Dealer's Line Book, Jan 1, 1954, provided by Bill Wahl.
24 * H.F.W. Schramm, Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und ausländischer Schreibmaschinen, 11th edition, Hans Burghagen Verlag, Hamburg 1962 - copy provided by Georg Sommeregger. Additional copy from the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
25 * P. Frensel, Die Entwicklung der ehemaligen DDR-Schreibmaschinen-Produktion (einschliesslich der bis 1945 produzierten Schreibmaschinen in diesem Gebiet sowie der Produktion ab 1990), in: Schreibmaschinen- und Bureau-Zeitung, Nr. 10/1999, Nr. 11/2000, Nr. 12/2000 (originally published in: Mannheimer Hefte für Schriftvergleich, Nr. 1-2/1999) - provided by Georg Sommeregger
"The development of the former GDR typewriter production (including typewriters produced on its territory until 1945 and production after 1990)"
26 * "The Writing Machine (A history of the typewriter)" Michael H. Adler
27 * "Antique Typewriters from Creed to QWERTY" Michael H. Adler
28 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Dec 1973 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies contributed by Mr. Peter Brill, Australia
(note: this reference same as #6)
29 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1971 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
30 * Typewriter Age Guide, publ. Oct 1980 by Office Machines and Equipment Federation, London, copies: T. Munk with the assistance of Mr. Rob Bowker, UK
31 * The Business Machines and Equipment Digest, publ. 1927 by Equipment-Research Corporation, copy contributed by Mark Adams.
32 * R. Blickensderfer and P. Robert, "The Five-Pound Secretary. An Illustrated History of the Blickensderfer Typewriter", publ. 2003 by The Virtual Typewriter Museum, excerpt contributed by Georg Sommeregger.
33 * Matricolario Olivetti, copy contributed by Enrico Morozzi.
34 * Olivetti Graphika Serial Number List, compiled by Domenico Scarzello.
35 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1950. By Carl Teege, Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
36 * Liste der Herstellungsdaten deutscher und auslandischer Schreibmaschinen - 1953. Published by Hans Burghagen Verlag. From the collection of Ryk van Dijk, scanned by Marlies Louwes.
37 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, February 1, 1941. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
38 * Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict. Remington Standard typewriter. New York : Wyckoff, Seamans & Benedict, [188-?], accessed from the Baker Library, Harvard Business School.
39 * Documented Hammond Serial Numbers, V.4 Jan. 1, 2013 through V.7 Jul 20, 2017, Compiled by Peter Weil.
40 * Blick Billheads With Serial Numbers, Compiled by Peter Weil.
41 * Olympia, USA "Allowance Sheet T-58" (approx 1977). From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
42 * IBM Typewriters Serial Numbers 1946 to 1977, Montreal Branch - IBM Canada Ltd. Contributed to Yahoo GolfBallTypewriterShop group by Jacques Coulombe.
43 * Xerox Factbook 1987
44 * IBM Selectric Adjustment & Parts Manual S241-5939-2
45 * Brother Service Update #31, June 20, 1985
46 * Brother Letter #0203 (10/1979) "How to Determine In-Warranty Typewriters"
47 * Brother Service Manuals and Addendums 1974-1990 "The Edsel R. Sanders Collection"
48 * National Typewriter and Office Machine Dealer's Association (NOMDA) Typewriter and Adding Machine Allowance Schedule, 1977. From the Collection of Tony Casillo, contributed by Richard Polt.
49 * Brother Group Corporate Profile, 2014
50 * Victor Standard Typewriters, By Will Davis
51 * Die historische Entwicklung des Bet riebes Optima Erfurt (2008), by Eberhard Lippmann. Contributed by Vilhelm Dromberg
52 * Corona: The Personal Writing Machine, by S. L. Johnson
53 * Standard Folding Typewriter by Richard Milton
54 * Collect Folding Coronas, by Paul Lippman
55 * Smith-Corona Parts and Service Manuals (1947-1999) lent by Bill Wahl
56 * Europe - Oliver - SIM - MAS small typewriters, by Georg Sommeregger.
57 * The Montana line of Hermes clones, by Mark Adams.
58 * The Hermes Baby page!, by Georg Sommeregger.
59 * American Digest of Business Machines, 1924. Contributed by Richard Polt.
60 * "MTE-INV" Mesa Typewriter Exchange Stock Inventory Records 1950 to 1987. Contributed by Bill Wahl.
61 * "Mechanical Typewriters - Their History, Value, and Legacy" by Thomas A. Russo.
62 * "The IBM Model B typewriter" by IBM.
63 * "Remington Portables" by Richard Polt.
64 * "Moskva and Janalif Research" by Alex Sandler. (plus updates)
65 * "Collector's Guide to Antique Typewriters" Dan Post, Post-Era Books, 1981.
66 * "The Unknown Writing Machine" Don Sutherland in The Antique Trader, 1978.
67 * "Don't Mind My Insanity: Updated Fox Serial Numbers" by Tyler Anderson.
68 * "A Very Good Year for Adler Favorit 2's" by Robert Godlieb.
69 * "FBI Forgery by Typewriter: Re-Examining the Alger Hiss Case - How Did His 1927 Woodstock Become a 1929 Model?" by Robert Messenger.
70 * "The Littlest Typewriters: Bennett's Bantamweights" by Robert Messenger.
71 * "Re: [TYPEWRITERS] Bennett Typewriter on Yahoo Typewriter Forum" by Thomas Furtig.
72 * "Sabb Schreibmaschine" by Georg Sommeregger.
73 * "Discovering the Studio Musicwriter" by Theodore Munk.
See: Etcetera #109 (link when available)
74 * "The Story of the Typewriter 1873-1923" Herkimer County Historical Society, 1923.
75 * "The Early History of the Typewriter" by Chas. E Weller (1918).
76 * "Old Typewriters" by Duncan James (Shire, 1993).
77 * "Williams Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson, 2016.
78 * "The History of the Typewriter" by Geo. Charles Mares (Gilbert Pitman, London, 1909).
79 * "Emerson Typewriter Research" by Tyler Anderson & Peter Weil, 2016.
80 * "The Emerson: The Enigma of Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
81 * "A History of the Three-Row 'WILLIAMS' Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in Historische Bürowelt No. 21 April 1988, and No. 22 July 1988.
82 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 50-52 1922" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
83 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 6-7 1907" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
84 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 38-40 1918" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
85 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 41 1919" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
86 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 29-32 1915" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
87 * "The Victor Standard Typewriter" by Will Davis.
88 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Trying to Unravel the Victor Mystery" by Robert Messenger.
89 * "The Franklin Typewriters" by Richard E. Dickerson in ETCetera #1 October, 1987.
90 * "On This Day in Typewriter History (CVI)" by Robert Messenger.
91 * "the Garbell Portable Typewriter" by The Garbell family.
92 * "Garbell Typewriter" by Greg Fudacz.
93 * "Fox Visible Typewriters - An Overview " by Will Davis.
94 * "Fox Portable Typewriters and the Demise of Fox Typewriter Company " by Will Davis.
95 * "The American Stationer" 1906.
96 * "The American Stationer" 1907.
97 * "Franklin Typewriter Ephemera" collected by Peter Weil, 2016.
98 * "A Bennington Letter" collected by Martin Howard.
99 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 6, 1921.
100 * "Filing & Office Management Magazine" Volume 7-8, 1922.
101 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 35-37 1917" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
102 * "Typewriter Topics: Vol. 44-46 1920" by The International Office Equipment Magazine.
103 * "On This Day in Typewriter History: Unearthing the Molle" by Robert Messenger.
104 * "It's pronounced 'Mollie'" by Mark Adams.
105 * "The Iron Age, Volume 79 - 1907".
106 * "Office Appliances Volume 36 - July 1922".
107 * "Office Appliances Volume 34 - July 1921".
108 * "The American Pocket Typewriter and Wellington Parker Kidder's Rochester" by Robert Messenger.
109 * "Crouching Tiger, Hidden Details - The early days of the Noiseless Typewriter" by Ed Neuert.
110 * "The Merritt" by Will Davis.
111 * "Yatran The Heaviest" by Alex Sandler.
112 * "Moskva 3 and 4 age lists as of 10-2016" by Alex Sandler.
113 * "Portable Typewriters Today - February 2015" by Will Davis.
114 * "The Early Bar-Lock" and "Bar-Lock Typewriters - Models 4 to 15" by Bert Kerschbaumer.
See: ETCetera #98 & #114
115 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #10 - March, 1960".
116 * "AMES Supply Parts Catalog #11P - Feb., 1965".
117 * "The Amazing Masspro Portable Typewriter: 'Grandson' of the Standard Folding" by Robert Messenger.
118 * "Masspro Typewriter Page" by Greg Fudacz.
119 * "Carl P. Dietz Collection of Typewriters", by George Herrl, 1965.
120 * "Royal Paint Touch-Up Color List", Rev. June, 1968.
121 * "Olympia SM series (part 1, 1948-1964)" by Nick T.
122 * "Olympia SM series (part 2, 1964-1980s)" by Nick T.
123 * "AMES Supply General Catalog #5 - August, 1940".
124 * "1975 Smith-Corona Model Prefix Guide", Discovered by Jonathan Kinser from Smith-Corona research.
125 * "Evolution of the Typewriter", C. V. Oden, 1917.
126 * "1912-1923 The Origins and Evolution of the Typewriter" Various Authors.
127 * "The Swedish Densmore Typewriter" by Robert Messenger.
128 * "All or Nakajima" by Steve K.
129 * Smith-Corona Series Estimates researched by Nick Bodemer, 2017
130 * Research by Peter Weil, and ephemera from The Cornelia and Peter Weil Typewriter Archives
131 * 1963 Hermes Baby Adjustment Manual B3, from the collection of T. Munk
132 * Underwood Age List, from the collection of Tony Casillo
133 * 1966 & 1971 Hermes 3000 Adjustment Manuals G4,G6 & 1971, from the collection of Jacques Perrier, Museum of the Typewriter, Lausanne, Switzerland
134 * "Korean Typewriters" by Robert Messenger.
135 * 1985 IBM Replacement Guide Form 71K6222, supplied by Clark Hinson from the collection of Roger Brockevelt
136 * "Blickensderfer’s last hurrah as a Remington" by Mark Adams.
137 * Blickensderfer Research by Peter Weil, 2017
138 * Etcetera #106-107
139 * "Briefly Blick-Bar" by Robert Messenger.
140 "Lexikon historischer Schreibmaschinen seit 1940" (Typewriter Lexikon since 1940) published 2008 by Leonhard Dingwerth.
141 * "Olivetti macchine per scrivere meccaniche" published 2013 by Carlo Torchio.
From the collection of Carl Hartmann via Mario Bellini
142 * "The ABC in Detail" by Will Davis and Thomas Fürtig.
143 * "The Real Story of the Brosette Typewriter and its successor the Jaykay Portable" by Michael A. Brown.
144 * "A Royal Safari at Eighteen Years on the Net" by Will Davis.
145 "The typewriter industry, The impact of a significant technological innovation" 1970 doctoral dissertation by George Nichols Engler, UCLA.